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Trade, Standards, and the Political Economy of Genetically Modified Food

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Author Info

  • Kym Anderson

    ()
    (World Bank)

  • Richard Damania

    (School of Economics, University of Adelaide)

  • Lee Ann Jacskon

    (WTO Secretariat, Geneva)

Abstract

A common-agency lobbying model is developed to help understand why North America and the European Union have adopted such different policies towards genetically modified food. Our results show that when firms (in this case farmers) lobby policy makers to influence standards and consumers and environmentalists care about the choice of standard, it is possible that increased competition from abroad can lead to strategic incentives to raise standards, not just lower them as shown in earlier models. This theoretical proposition is supported by numerical results from a global general equilibrium model of GM adoption in America without and with an EU moratorium.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies in its series Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers with number 2004-10.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:adl:cieswp:2004-10

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Keywords: GMOs; political economy; regulation of standards; trade policy.;

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References

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  1. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  2. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & McBride, William D., 2000. "Genetically Engineered Crops For Pest Management In U.S. Agriculture," Agricultural Economics Reports 33931, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  3. Grossman, Gene & Helpman, Elhanan, 1993. "Protection for Sale," CEPR Discussion Papers 827, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Ronald Fischer & Pablo Serra, 1998. "Standards and Protection," Documentos de Trabajo 45, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  5. Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1992. "Trade Wars and Trade Talks," Papers 163, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
  6. Kym Anderson & Lee Ann Jacskon, 2004. "Standards, trade and protection: the case of GMOs," Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers 2004-11, University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies.
  7. Riordan, Michael H, 1986. "Monopolistic Competition with Experience Goods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(2), pages 265-79, May.
  8. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & McBride, William D., 2002. "Adoption Of Bioengineered Crops," Agricultural Economics Reports 33957, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  9. Boom, Anette, 1995. "Asymmetric International Minimum Quality Standards and Vertical Differentiation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(1), pages 101-19, March.
  10. Flam, Harry & Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Vertical Product Differentiation and North-South Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 810-22, December.
  11. Bernheim, B Douglas & Whinston, Michael D, 1986. "Menu Auctions, Resource Allocation, and Economic Influence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(1), pages 1-31, February.
  12. Lapan, Harvey E. & Moschini, GianCarlo, 2004. "Innovation and Trade with Endogenous Market Failure: The Case of Genetically Modified Products," Staff General Research Papers 2109, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  13. van Tongeren, Frank W. & van Meijl, Hans, 2003. "International Diffusion Of Gains From Biotechnology And The European Union'S Common Agricultural Policy," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25835, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  14. Marra, Michele C. & Pardey, Philip G. & Alston, Julian M., 2002. "The payoffs to agricultural biotechnology: an assessment of the evidence," EPTD discussion papers 87, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  15. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-98, January.
  16. Murray Fulton & Konstantinos Giannakas, 2004. "Inserting GM Products into the Food Chain: The Market and Welfare Effects of Different Labeling and Regulatory Regimes," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 86(1), pages 42-60.
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Cited by:
  1. Swinnen, Johan F.M. & Vandemoortele, Thijs, 2008. "The Political Economy of Nutrition and Health Standards in Food Markets," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44364, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Vigani, Mauro & Olper, Alessandro, 2012. "GMO Standards, Endogenous Policy and the Market for Information," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126443, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  3. Ana Santos & Jose Caetano, 2008. "EU regulation concerning genetically modified products: an issue of food security or a measure of disguised protectionism?," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2008_10, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
  4. Xiang, Tao & Huang, Jikun & Kancs, d'Artis & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Standards Driven Rural Development: A General Equilibrium Model with Market Imperfections," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51476, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  5. Swinnen, Johan F.M. & Rozelle, Scott & Xiang, Tao & Vandemoortele, Thijs, 2009. "A Theory of Standards-Driven Rural Development," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51475, International Association of Agricultural Economists.

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