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China’s Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate: A Counterfactual Analysis

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  • Rod Tyers

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  • Yongxiang Bu
  • Ian Bain

    ()

Abstract

China’s maintenance of a de facto peg against the US dollar during and following the Asian financial crisis caused a realignment of exchange rates in the Asian region. This paper explores the “equilibrium” level of China’s real effective rate in the lead-up to, during and following that crisis. An adaptation of the Devarajan-Lewis-Robinson three-good general equilibrium model is employed to estimate time paths of the equilibrium real effective exchange rate under a variety of assumptions about the balance of trade. Key requirements of the model are indices of import and export prices in time series. Since these are unavailable from secondary sources they are here constructed from trade data. The results suggest that, while there is no clear evidence of undervaluation as of 2004, China’s real effective exchange rate was on the low side in the lead-up to and during the crisis, due in part to an extraordinary rate of accumulation of foreign reserves and an associated trade surplus following the integration of its hitherto multiple exchange rates in 1994. If, instead, China had run a more typical trade deficit, say amounting to 10 per cent of export revenue or 1.5 per cent of GDP, it is estimated that China’s real effective exchange rate would have been higher by about a tenth prior to the crisis.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics in its series ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics with number 2006-466.

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Length: 29 pages
Date of creation: May 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:acb:cbeeco:2006-466

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References

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  1. WHALLEY, John & XIN, Xian, 2010. "China's FDI and non-FDI economies and the sustainability of future high Chinese growth," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 123-135, March.
  2. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter Garber, 2007. "Direct Investment, Rising Real Wages and the Absorption of Excess Labor in the Periphery," NBER Chapters, in: G7 Current Account Imbalances: Sustainability and Adjustment, pages 103-132 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Ivan Roberts & Rod Tyers, 2003. "China's Exchange Rate Policy: The Case for Greater Flexibility," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 17(2), pages 155-184, 06.
  4. Chinn, Menzie D. & Ito, Hiro, 2007. "Current account balances, financial development and institutions: Assaying the world "saving glut"," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 546-569, June.
  5. Rod Tyers & Yongzheng Yang, 2000. "Weathering the Asian Crisis: The Role of China," Asia Pacific Economic Papers 308, Australia-Japan Research Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  6. Eswar Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2007. "The Chinese Approach to Capital Inflows: Patterns and Possible Explanations," NBER Chapters, in: Capital Controls and Capital Flows in Emerging Economies: Policies, Practices and Consequences, pages 421-480 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Takatoshi Ito & Kathryn M. Dominguez & Moeen Qureshi & Zhang Shengman & Masaru Yoshitomi, 1999. "Capital Flows to East Asia," NBER Chapters, in: International Capital Flows, pages 111-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Shang-Jin Wei & Eswar Prasad, 2005. "The Chinese Approach to Capital Inflows," IMF Working Papers 05/79, International Monetary Fund.
  9. Wei, Shang-Jin & Zeckhauser, Richard J., 1998. "Two crises and two Chinas," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 359-369, July.
  10. Yongzheng Yang & Rod Tyers, 2001. "The Asian Crisis and Economic Change in China," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 52(4), pages 491-510.
  11. Chou, W. L. & Shih, Y. C., 1998. "The Equilibrium Exchange Rate of the Chinese Renminbi," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 165-174, March.
  12. Corden, W Max, 1993. "Exchange Rate Policies for Developing Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(416), pages 198-207, January.
  13. Yin-Wong Cheung & Menzie D. Chinn & Eiji Fujii, 2005. "Why the renminbi might be overvalued (but probably isn’t)," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  14. Sebastian Edwards, 1989. "Real Exchange Rates in the Developing Countries: Concepts and Measure- ment," NBER Working Papers 2950, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. John G. Fernald & Oliver D. Babson, 1999. "Why has China survived the Asian crisis so well? What risks remain?," International Finance Discussion Papers 633, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Korhonen, Iikka & Ritola, Maria, 2009. "Renminbi misaligned - Results from meta-regressions," BOFIT Discussion Papers 13/2009, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  2. Rod Tyers & Jane Golley & Iain Bain, 2007. "China'S Real Exchange Rate Puzzle," CAMA Working Papers 2007-14, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  3. Rod Tyers & Iain Bain, 2007. "Appreciating the Renminbi," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2007-483, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
  4. Rod Tyers & Jane Golley, 2007. "China’s Real Exchange Rate," ANU Working Papers in Economics and Econometrics 2007-479, Australian National University, College of Business and Economics, School of Economics.
  5. Zhang, Yin & Wan, Guanghua, 2004. "What Accounts for China's Trade Balance Dynamics?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  6. Rod TYERS, 2013. "China and Global Macroeconomic Interdependence," CAMA Working Papers 2013-34, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  7. Rod Tyers, 2014. "International Effects of China’s Rise and Transition: Neoclassical and Keynesian Perspectives," CAMA Working Papers 2014-05, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  8. Rod Tyers & Iain Bain, 2008. "American And European Financial Shocks: Implications For Chinese Economic Performance," CAMA Working Papers 2008-08, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  9. Zhang, Yin & Wan, Guanghua, 2008. "Correcting China's trade imbalance: Monetary means will not suffice," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 505-521.
  10. Bernd Schnatz, 2011. "Global Imbalances And The Pretence Of Knowing Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rates," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(5), pages 604-615, December.

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