International Journal of Industrial Organization
September 2011, Volume 29, Issue 5
- 576-588 Legal unbundling can be a golden mean between vertical integration and ownership separation
by Höffler, Felix & Kranz, Sebastian
- 589-605 On optimal scarcity prices
by Zöttl, Gregor
- 606-627 Coordination and the provision of incentives to a common regulated firm
by Burnett, Johann Caro & Carrasco, Vinicius
- 628-643 Optimal best-price policy
by Xu, Frances Zhiyun
July 2011, Volume 29, Issue 4
- 361-372 Price wars and price collusion in China's airline markets
by Zhang, Yahua & Round, David K.
- 373-385 Anti-competitive effects of resale-below-cost laws
by Allain, Marie-Laure & Chambolle, Claire
- 386-398 R&D-induced industry polarization and shake-outs
by Amir, Rabah & Halmenschlager, Christine & Jin, Jim
- 399-411 Endogenous capacities and price competition: The role of demand uncertainty
by de Frutos, María-Ángeles & Fabra, Natalia
- 412-425 Competition and the signaling role of prices
by Adriani, Fabrizio & Deidda, Luca G.
- 426-431 Optimal mechanisms for an auction mediator
by Matros, Alexander & Zapechelnyuk, Andriy
- 432-442 Supply function equilibria with capacity constraints and pivotal suppliers
by Genc, Talat S. & Reynolds, Stanley S.
- 443-454 Efficient division of profits from complementary innovations
by Gilbert, Richard J. & Katz, Michael L.
- 455-463 Genetically modified crops as real options: Identifying regional and country-specific differences
by Nadolnyak, Denis & Miranda, Mario J. & Sheldon, Ian
- 464-472 Entry deterrence and experimentation under demand uncertainty
by Jain, Neelam
- 473-483 What is the objective of professional licensing? Evidence from the US market for lawyers
by Pagliero, Mario
- 484-492 Outsourcing induced by strategic competition
by Chen, Yutian & Dubey, Pradeep & Sen, Debapriya
- 493-503 How does income inequality affect market outcomes in vertically differentiated markets?
by Yurko, Anna V.
May 2011, Volume 29, Issue 3
- 305-305 Preface
by Gandal, Neil
- 306-316 Does competition raise productivity through improving management quality?
by Van Reenen, John
- 317-322 Do physician incentives affect hospital choice? A progress report
by Ho, Katherine & Pakes, Ariel
- 323-328 On the role of empirical industrial organization in competition policy
by Davis, Peter
- 329-336 Competition between exchanges: A research agenda
by Cantillon, Estelle & Yin, Pai-Ling
- 337-341 On the anti-competitive effects of quantity discounts
by Calzolari, Giacomo & Denicolò, Vincenzo
- 342-344 The impact of the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program on patient choice
by Gowrisankaran, Gautam & Lucarelli, Claudio & Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp & Town, Robert
- 345-349 Recent progress in the empirical analysis of multi-unit auctions
by Hortaçsu, Ali
- 350-355 Recovering markups from production data
by De Loecker, Jan
- 356-359 Ex ante or ex post competition policy? A progress report
by Ottaviani, Marco & Wickelgren, Abraham L.
March 2011, Volume 29, Issue 2
- 155-167 The impact of FDI through mergers and acquisitions on innovation in target firms
by Stiebale, Joel & Reize, Frank
- 168-178 Entry into auctions: An experimental analysis
by Ertaç, Seda & Hortaçsu, Ali & Roberts, James W.
- 179-186 Resale price maintenance and restrictions on dominant firm and industry-wide adoption
by Foros, Øystein & Kind, Hans Jarle & Shaffer, Greg
- 187-199 Licensing information goods
by Saracho, Ana I.
- 200-209 Vertical mergers in procurement markets
by Thomas, Charles J.
- 210-220 Effects of innovation on employment: A dynamic panel analysis
by Lachenmaier, Stefan & Rottmann, Horst
- 221-231 Tacit collusion, firm asymmetries and numbers: Evidence from EC merger cases
by Davies, Stephen & Olczak, Matthew & Coles, Heather
- 232-241 Unionization structure, licensing and innovation
by Mukherjee, Arijit & Pennings, Enrico
- 242-252 Patent office in innovation policy: Nobody's perfect
by Caillaud, Bernard & Duchêne, Anne
- 253-262 Ordered search in differentiated markets
by Zhou, Jidong
- 263-272 Access regulation and investment in next generation networks -- A ranking of regulatory regimes
by Nitsche, Rainer & Wiethaus, Lars
- 273-282 The success of divestitures in merger enforcement: Evidence from the J&J-Pfizer transaction
by Tenn, Steven & Yun, John M.
- 283-293 The impact on broadband access to the Internet of the dual ownership of telephone and cable networks
by Pereira, Pedro & Ribeiro, Tiago
- 294-303 To join or not to join: Examining patent pool participation and rent sharing rules
by Layne-Farrar, Anne & Lerner, Josh
January 2011, Volume 29, Issue 1
- 1-3 Introduction to the special issue on experiments in industrial organization
by Normann, Hans-Theo & Ruffle, Bradley
- 4-13 An experimental study of exclusive contracts
by Smith, Angela M.
- 14-22 Buyer confusion and market prices
by KalaycI, Kenan & Potters, Jan
- 23-33 Information value and externalities in reputation building
by Bolton, Gary E. & Ockenfels, Axel & Ebeling, Felix
- 34-45 Auctions with toeholds: An experimental study of company takeovers
by Georganas, Sotiris & Nagel, Rosemarie
- 46-53 An experimental test of automatic mitigation of wholesale electricity prices
by Shawhan, Daniel L. & Messer, Kent D. & Schulze, William D. & Schuler, Richard E.
- 54-64 Auctions with resale when private values are uncertain: Evidence from the lab and field
by Lange, Andreas & List, John A. & Price, Michael K.
- 65-73 Is there a U-shaped relation between competition and investment?
by Sacco, Dario & Schmutzler, Armin
- 74-83 An experiment on spatial competition with endogenous pricing
by Barreda-Tarrazona, Iván & García-Gallego, Aurora & Georgantzís, Nikolaos & Andaluz-Funcia, Joaquín & Gil-Sanz, Agustín
- 84-96 Fighting collusion in auctions: An experimental investigation
by Hu, Audrey & Offerman, Theo & Onderstal, Sander
- 97-103 Can real-effort investments inhibit the convergence of experimental markets?
by Cason, Timothy N. & Gangadharan, Lata & Nikiforakis, Nikos
- 104-115 Group identity in markets
by Li, Sherry Xin & Dogan, Kutsal & Haruvy, Ernan
- 116-125 Rent seeking in groups
by Ahn, T.K. & Isaac, R. Mark & Salmon, Timothy C.
- 126-133 Cartel formation and pricing: The effect of managerial decision-making rules
by Gillet, Joris & Schram, Arthur & Sonnemans, Joep
- 134-153 Price dynamics and collusion under short-run price commitments
by Leufkens, Kasper & Peeters, Ronald
November 2010, Volume 28, Issue 6
- 579-590 The impact of shopbot use on prices and price dispersion: Evidence from online book retailing
by Tang, Zhulei & Smith, Michael D. & Montgomery, Alan
- 591-603 Public-private partnerships: Task interdependence and contractibility
by Chen, Bin R. & Chiu, Y. Stephen
- 604-618 Product innovation and adoption in market equilibrium: The case of digital cameras
by Carranza, Juan Esteban
- 619-638 Consumer learning and heterogeneity: Dynamics of demand for prescription drugs after patent expiration
by Ching, Andrew T.
- 639-644 On the incidence of commissions in auction markets
by Ginsburgh, Victor & Legros, Patrick & Sahuguet, Nicolas
- 645-656 Do mergers improve efficiency? Evidence from restructuring the US electric power sector
by Kwoka, John & Pollitt, Michael
- 657-668 Carve-outs under airline antitrust immunity
by Brueckner, Jan K. & Proost, Stef
- 669-681 Pricing with customer recognition
by Esteves, Rosa-Branca
- 682-694 The impact of firm cost and market size asymmetries on national mergers in a three-country model
by Santos-Pinto, Luís
- 695-707 Mergers when firms compete by choosing both price and promotion
by Tenn, Steven & Froeb, Luke & Tschantz, Steven
- 708-721 Is quality accreditation effective? Evidence from the childcare market
by Xiao, Mo
September 2010, Volume 28, Issue 5
- 423-433 On the pricing rule in electronic auctions
by Hickman, Brent
- 434-440 Firm market value and production technology
by Fan, Maoyong & Firestone, Simon
- 441-450 "Planned antiobsolescence" occurs when consumers engage in maintenance
by Kinokuni, Hiroshi & Ohkawa, Takao & Okamura, Makoto
- 451-463 Break-up fees and bargaining power in sequential contracting
by Marx, Leslie M. & Shaffer, Greg
- 464-476 Firm size and short-term dynamics in aggregate entry and exit
by Manjón-Antolín, Miguel C.
- 477-495 Endogenous communication and tacit coordination in market entry games: An explorative experimental study
by Andersson, Ola & Holm, Håkan J.
- 496-506 Ordered search and equilibrium obfuscation
by Wilson, Chris M.
- 507-521 Prior art: To search or not to search
by Atal, Vidya & Bar, Talia
- 522-525 A note comparing the capacity setting performance of the Kreps-Scheinkman duopoly model with the Cournot duopoly model in a laboratory setting
by Goodwin, David & Mestelman, Stuart
- 526-538 Disagreements and intra-industry spinoffs
by Klepper, Steven & Thompson, Peter
- 539-554 Interchange fees and incentives to invest in payment card systems
by Verdier, Marianne
- 555-578 Coverage of retail stores and discrete choice models of demand: Estimating price elasticities and welfare effects
by Mariuzzo, Franco & Walsh, Patrick Paul & Whelan, Ciara
July 2010, Volume 28, Issue 4
- 336-340 Exclusivity, competition and the irrelevance of internal investment
by de Fontenay, Catherine C. & Gans, Joshua S. & Groves, Vivienne
- 341-344 Models of vertical market relations
by Inderst, Roman
- 345-349 Vertical relations
by Miklós-Thal, Jeanine & Rey, Patrick & Vergé, Thibaud
- 350-354 Vertical merger, collusion, and disruptive buyers
by Nocke, Volker & White, Lucy
- 355-358 Policemen, managers, lawyers: New results on complementarities between organization and information and communication technology
by Garicano, Luis
- 359-361 Equilibrium, outcomes, and the economics of organization
by Hubbard, Thomas N.
- 362-367 Incentives in university technology transfers
by Macho-Stadler, Inés & Pérez-Castrillo, David
- 368-371 Cross-country and within-country differences in the business climate
by Bartelsman, Eric & Haltiwanger, John & Scarpetta, Stefano
- 372-376 Innovation, exports and productivity
by Cassiman, Bruno & Golovko, Elena & Martínez-Ros, Ester
- 377-382 A dynamic game of airline network competition: Hub-and-spoke networks and entry deterrence
by Aguirregabiria, Victor & Ho, Chun-Yu
- 383-389 On the role of demand and strategic uncertainty in capacity investment and disinvestment dynamics
by Besanko, David & Doraszelski, Ulrich & Lu, Lauren Xiaoyuan & Satterthwaite, Mark
- 390-396 Recent U.S. offshore oil and gas lease bidding: A progress report
by Haile, Philip & Hendricks, Kenneth & Porter, Robert
- 397-402 Do sales tax credits stimulate the automobile market?
by Chen, Jiawei & Esteban, Susanna & Shum, Matthew
- 403-406 Empirical analysis of markets with free and restricted entry
by Ferrari, Stijn & Verboven, Frank
- 407-414 Leniency and post-cartel market conduct: Preliminary evidence from parcel tanker shipping
by Asker, John
- 415-422 Competitiveness and interregional as well as international trade: The case of Catalonia
by Ghemawat, Pankaj & Llano, Carlos & Requena, Francisco
May 2010, Volume 28, Issue 3
- 203-204 A letter from the editors
by Bajari, Patrick & Caillaud, Bernard & Gandal, Neil
- 205-212 Identifying the effect of unobserved quality and expert reviews in the pricing of experience goods: Empirical application on Bordeaux wine
by Dubois, Pierre & Nauges, Céline
- 213-219 Exclusionary vertical contracts with multiple entrants
by Kitamura, Hiroshi
- 220-229 Dynamic demand and noncompetitive intertemporal output adjustments
by Wirl, Franz
- 230-243 Downstream merger and welfare in a bilateral oligopoly
by Symeonidis, George
- 244-253 Complements and potential competition
by Packalen, Mikko
- 254-270 Subsidies, entry and the distribution of R&D investment
by Asker, John & Baccara, Mariagiovanna
- 271-277 Subscription of shares
by Xie, Danyang
- 278-287 Investment, uncertainty and pre-emption
by Mason, Robin & Weeds, Helen
- 288-297 Equilibrium vertical differentiation in a Bertrand model with capacity precommitment
by Boccard, N. & Wauthy, X.Y.
- 298-306 Tacit collusion with price-matching punishments
by Lu, Yuanzhu & Wright, Julian
- 307-310 Markets for influence
by Menezes, Flavio M. & Quiggin, John
- 311-322 Increasing market interconnection: An analysis of the Italian electricity spot market
by Boffa, Federico & Pingali, Viswanath & Vannoni, Davide
- 323-333 Can two-part tariffs promote efficient investment on next generation networks?
by Brito, Duarte & Pereira, Pedro & Vareda, João
March 2010, Volume 28, Issue 2
- 113-126 Patents, imitation and licensing in an asymmetric dynamic R&D race
by Fershtman, Chaim & Markovich, Sarit
- 127-130 The relation between variance and information rent in auctions
by Katzman, Brett & Reif, Julian & Schwartz, Jesse A.
- 131-144 Tacit collusion in the presence of cyclical demand and endogenous capacity levels
by Knittel, Christopher R. & Lepore, Jason J.
- 145-154 Exclusive dealing with network effects
by Doganoglu, Toker & Wright, Julian
- 155-166 Endogenous bank mergers and their impact on banking performance: Some evidence from Austria
by Egger, Peter & Hahn, Franz R.
- 167-175 Dynamic access pricing and investment in alternative infrastructures
by Avenali, Alessandro & Matteucci, Giorgio & Reverberi, Pierfrancesco
- 176-190 Cooperation in product development and process R&D between competitors
by Bourreau, Marc & Dogan, PInar
- 191-202 Global engagement and the innovation activities of firms
by Criscuolo, Chiara & Haskel, Jonathan E. & Slaughter, Matthew J.
January 2010, Volume 28, Issue 1
- 1-9 Comparing revenue from auctions and posted prices
by Hammond, Robert G.
- 10-20 Compulsory or voluntary pre-merger notification? Theory and some evidence
by Choe, Chongwoo & Shekhar, Chander
- 21-29 The length of contracts and collusion
by Green, Richard & Le Coq, Chloé
- 30-43 Declining valuations and equilibrium bidding in central bank refinancing operations
by Ewerhart, Christian & Cassola, Nuno & Valla, Natacha
- 44-53 Explaining unrestricted giving by charitable foundations: A transaction cost approach
by Thornton, Jeremy
- 54-68 Skills, division of labor and performance in collective inventions: Evidence from open source software
by Giuri, Paola & Ploner, Matteo & Rullani, Francesco & Torrisi, Salvatore
- 69-73 Establishing compatibility between Europe's payment systems
by Leibbrandt, Gottfried
- 74-85 Cooperative R&D under uncertainty with free entry
by Erkal, Nisvan & Piccinin, Daniel
- 86-98 Market structure and payment card pricing: What drives the interchange?
by Wang, Zhu
- 99-111 Predicting the impact of upstream mergers on downstream markets with an application to the retail gasoline industry
by Manuszak, Mark D.
November 2009, Volume 27, Issue 6
- 639-645 An empirical study of the European corporate leniency program
by Brenner, Steffen
- 646-654 Computing welfare losses from data under imperfect competition with heterogeneous goods
by Corchón, Luis C. & Zudenkova, Galina
- 655-666 Stochastic market sharing, partial communication and collusion
by Gerlach, Heiko
- 667-678 Resale and bundling in auctions
by Pagnozzi, Marco
- 679-686 Oligopoly, open shop unions and trade liberalisation
by Bastos, Paulo & Kreickemeier, Udo & Wright, Peter
- 687-707 Endogenous location leadership
by Meza, Sergio & Tombak, Mihkel
- 708-718 Are there waves in merger activity after all?
by Gärtner, Dennis L. & Halbheer, Daniel
- 719-727 List pricing and discounting in a Bertrand-Edgeworth duopoly
by García Díaz, Antón & Hernán González, Roberto & Kujal, Praveen
- 728-738 Endogenous timing of actions under conflict between two types of second mover advantage
by Yoon, Young-Ro
September 2009, Volume 27, Issue 5
- 553-566 Quantifying the cost of excess market thickness in timber sale auctions
by Zheng, Xiaoyong
- 567-571 A note on the excess entry theorem in spatial models with elastic demand
by Gu, Yiquan & Wenzel, Tobias
- 572-581 Whole vs. shared ownership of foreign affiliates
by Raff, Horst & Ryan, Michael & Stähler, Frank
- 582-591 An experimental investigation of asymmetric contests
by Fonseca, Miguel A.
- 592-604 Predatory reputation in US airline markets
by Kim, Sung-Hwan
- 605-614 Local network externalities and market segmentation
by Banerji, A. & Dutta, Bhaskar
- 615-624 Duopolistic competition between independent and collaborative business-to-business marketplaces
by Sülzle, Kai
- 625-631 Distribution contracts to support optimal inventory holdings under demand uncertainty
by Marvel, Howard P. & Wang, Hao
- 632-638 Forgoing invention to deter entry
by Creane, Anthony & Miyagiwa, Kaz
July 2009, Volume 27, Issue 4
- 489-500 Optimal incentives under moral hazard and heterogeneous agents: Evidence from production contracts data
by Dubois, Pierre & Vukina, Tomislav
- 501-507 Welfare in differentiated oligopolies with more than two firms
by Schmidt, Robert C.
- 508-518 Process and product innovation by a multiproduct monopolist: A dynamic approach
by Lambertini, Luca & Mantovani, Andrea
- 519-531 R&D wars and the effects of innovation on the success and survivability of firms in oligopoly markets
by Tishler, Asher & Milstein, Irena
- 532-543 Market foreclosure and vertical merger: A case study of the vertical merger between Turner Broadcasting and Time Warner
by Suzuki, Ayako
- 544-551 Vertically integrated firms' investments in electricity generating capacities
by Boom, Anette
May 2009, Volume 27, Issue 3
- 333-345 Pre-grant patent publication and cumulative innovation
by Aoki, Reiko & Spiegel, Yossi
- 346-357 Winning while losing: Competition dynamics in the presence of indirect network effects
by Markovich, Sarit & Moenius, Johannes
- 358-368 Public-private partnerships and the privatization of financing: An incomplete contracts approach
by de Bettignies, Jean-Etienne & Ross, Thomas W.
- 369-378 Gambling by auctions
by Raviv, Yaron & Virag, Gabor
- 379-389 The unilateral incentives for technology transfers: Predation (and deterrence) by proxy
by Creane, Anthony & Konishi, Hideo
- 390-402 Designing input prices to motivate process innovation
by Chen, Yongmin & Sappington, David E.M.
- 403-413 Firm-level productivity studies: Illusions and a solution
by Katayama, Hajime & Lu, Shihua & Tybout, James R.
- 414-423 Mixed oligopoly equilibria when firms' objectives are endogenous
by De Donder, Philippe & Roemer, John E.
- 424-434 Innovation, ownership and profitability
by Love, James H. & Roper, Stephen & Du, Jun
- 435-440 Endogenous shakeouts
by Bertomeu, Jeremy
- 441-448 Asymmetry and discrimination in Internet peering: evidence from the LINX
by D'Ignazio, Alessio & Giovannetti, Emanuele
- 449-462 Disclosure or secrecy? The dynamics of Open Science
by Mukherjee, Arijit & Stern, Scott
- 463-473 Distance decreases with differentiation: Strategic agglomeration by retailers
by Picone, Gabriel A. & Ridley, David B. & Zandbergen, Paul A.
- 474-487 Dynamic entry and exit with uncertain cost positions
by Hanazono, Makoto & Yang, Huanxing
March 2009, Volume 27, Issue 2
- 121-136 Software exclusivity and the scope of indirect network effects in the U.S. home video game market
by Corts, Kenneth S. & Lederman, Mara
- 137-144 Favor exchange in collusion: Empirical study of repeated procurement auctions in Japan
by Ishii, Rieko
- 145-165 Group size effects on cartel formation and the enforcement power of leniency programs
by Hamaguchi, Yasuyo & Kawagoe, Toshiji & Shibata, Aiko
- 166-174 Ability, location and household demand for Internet bandwidth
by Savage, Scott James & Waldman, Donald M.
- 175-187 Sequential cross-border mergers
by Fumagalli, Eileen & Vasconcelos, Helder
- 188-196 Negotiating remedies: Revealing the merger efficiency gains
by Cosnita, Andreea & Tropeano, Jean-Philippe
- 197-205 Price dispersion in duopolies with heterogeneous consumers
by Sinitsyn, Maxim
- 206-213 Umbrella branding with imperfect observability and moral hazard
by Cabral, Luís M.B.
- 214-222 Entry and exit by new versus existing firms
by Plehn-Dujowich, Jose M.
- 223-237 Managed care competition and the adoption of hospital technology: The case of cardiac catheterization
by Bokhari, Farasat A.S.
- 238-249 Usage and diffusion of cellular telephony, 1998-2004
by Grajek, Michal & Kretschmer, Tobias
- 250-263 Are lemons really hot potatoes?
by Engers, Maxim & Hartmann, Monica & Stern, Steven
- 264-273 Merger performance under uncertain efficiency gains
by Amir, Rabah & Diamantoudi, Effrosyni & Xue, Licun
- 274-285 Auctions, aftermarket competition, and risk attitudes
by Janssen, Maarten C.W. & Karamychev, Vladimir A.
- 286-291 The chopstick auction: A study of the exposure problem in multi-unit auctions
by Englmaier, Florian & Guillén, Pablo & Llorente, Loreto & Onderstal, Sander & Sausgruber, Rupert
- 292-301 Do media consumers really dislike advertising? An empirical assessment of the role of advertising in print media markets
by Kaiser, Ulrich & Song, Minjae
- 302-311 How do households choose quality and time to replacement for a rapidly improving durable good?
by Prince, Jeffrey T.
- 312-319 The determinants of public versus private provision of Emergency Medical Services
by David, Guy & Chiang, Arthur J.
- 320-331 Investment in oligopoly under uncertainty: The accordion effect
by Bouis, Romain & Huisman, Kuno J.M. & Kort, Peter M.
January 2009, Volume 27, Issue 1
- 1-14 Investigating bid preferences at low-price, sealed-bid auctions with endogenous participation
by Hubbard, Timothy P. & Paarsch, Harry J.
- 15-23 Experts vs. discounters: Consumer free-riding and experts withholding advice in markets for credence goods
by Dulleck, Uwe & Kerschbamer, Rudolf
- 24-32 Pricing behavior in asymmetric markets with differentiated products
by Peeters, Ronald & Strobel, Martin
- 33-42 Bidding behavior in sequential cattle auctions
by Zulehner, Christine
- 43-50 Dynamic targeted pricing with strategic consumers
by Chen, Yuxin & Zhang, Z. John
- 51-59 Procurement contracts: Theory vs. practice
by Chu, Leon Yang & Sappington, David E.M.
- 60-69 Informative advertising in differentiated oligopoly markets
by Hamilton, Stephen F.
- 70-79 Mergers and innovation in big pharma
by Ornaghi, Carmine
- 80-91 Shirking, sharing risk and shelving: The role of university license contracts
by Dechenaux, Emmanuel & Thursby, Marie & Thursby, Jerry
- 92-109 The effects of mergers with dynamic capacity accumulation
by Chen, Jiawei
- 110-120 Technological innovation in the airline industry: The impact of regional jets
by Brueckner, Jan K. & Pai, Vivek
November 2008, Volume 26, Issue 6
- 1257-1273 Sales: Tests of theories on causality and timing
by Berck, Peter & Brown, Jennifer & Perloff, Jeffrey M. & Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto
- 1274-1289 Organization of multinational activities and ownership structure
by Mugele, Christian & Schnitzer, Monika
- 1290-1307 The impact of collusion on price behavior: Empirical results from two recent cases
by Bolotova, Yuliya & Connor, John M. & Miller, Douglas J.
- 1308-1322 Testing for common costs in the City of Helsinki bus transit auctions
by Tukiainen, Janne
- 1323-1332 Do farmers value the environment? Evidence from a conservation reserve program auction
by Vukina, Tomislav & Zheng, Xiaoyong & Marra, Michele & Levy, Armando