Energy Tax Reform with Exemptions for the Energy-Intensiv Export Sector
The present paper applies a theoretical two-sector three-factor model to analyze a variety of energy tax reforms with the common feature of at least partly exempting the energy-intensive export sector from the tax. As a result, all scenarios with exemptions reduce energy less than the non-discriminating textbook version of the energy tax. Moreover, in the two scenarios that exemplify typical attributes of the tax reforms in Germany and Denmark, an increase in total energy use is possible. This is due to a positive output effect resulting from a substitution of the energy-intensive for the labor-intensive commodity.
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