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Cointegration of real estate stocks and REITs with common stocks, bonds and consumer price inflation: an international comparison

  • Westerheide, Peter

This paper analyses the performance of real estate securities and their relationship to other asset classes as well as to consumer price inflation in an international comparison over the period from 1990 to 2004. The analysis focuses on the long run relationships, applying three different cointegration tests. It covers the US, Canada, Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany. Results show that real estate securities in most countries had a high performance in nominal and real terms. The average performance over the whole period (1990 – 2004) has been particularly high in capital market oriented countries in the sample (US, Australia), and also in France. Real estate securities have outperformed bond markets on a risk adjusted basis only in the US and in Australia, while an outperformance of stock markets can be observed also in Japan and France. Particularly in the period 2001 to 2004 real estate security market have soared in most countries with the notable exception of Germany. In general, real estate securities seem to represent an asset class distinct from bonds and stocks in most countries. In the long run they seem provide a potential for further diversification of asset portfolios. Additionally, real estate stocks provide a (weak) hedge against consumer price inflation in almost every country.

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File URL: http://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/24512/1/dp06057.pdf
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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 06-57.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5451
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  1. Raimond Mauer & Steffen P. Sebastian, 2002. "Inflation Risk Analysis of European Real Estate Securities," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 24(1), pages 47-78.
  2. Colin Lizieri & Patrick McAllister & Charles Ward, 2003. "Continental Shift? An Analysis of Convergence Trends in European Real Estate Equities," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 25(1), pages 1-22.
  3. Cauchie, Severine & Hoesli, Martin, 2004. "The integration of securitized real estate and financial assets," ERES eres2004_574, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
  4. F.C. Neil Myer & James R. Webb, 1994. "Retail Stocks, Retail REITs, and Retail Real Estate," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 9(1), pages 65-84.
  5. James G. MacKinnon, 1995. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Working Papers 918, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  6. Eichholtz, Piet M A & Hartzell, David J, 1996. "Property Shares, Appraisals and the Stock Market: An International Perspective," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 163-78, March.
  7. Fama, Eugene F. & Schwert, G. William, 1977. "Asset returns and inflation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 115-146, November.
  8. Neil R. Ericsson & James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Distributions of error correction tests for cointegration," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 5(2), pages 285-318, 06.
  9. Crocker H. Liu & David J. Hartzell & Martin E. Hoesli, 1997. "International Evidence on Real Estate Securities as an Inflation Hedge," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(2), pages 193-221.
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