IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/zewdip/5451.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cointegration of real estate stocks and REITs with common stocks, bonds and consumer price inflation: an international comparison

Author

Listed:
  • Westerheide, Peter

Abstract

This paper analyses the performance of real estate securities and their relationship to other asset classes as well as to consumer price inflation in an international comparison over the period from 1990 to 2004. The analysis focuses on the long run relationships, applying three different cointegration tests. It covers the US, Canada, Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany. Results show that real estate securities in most countries had a high performance in nominal and real terms. The average performance over the whole period (1990 – 2004) has been particularly high in capital market oriented countries in the sample (US, Australia), and also in France. Real estate securities have outperformed bond markets on a risk adjusted basis only in the US and in Australia, while an outperformance of stock markets can be observed also in Japan and France. Particularly in the period 2001 to 2004 real estate security market have soared in most countries with the notable exception of Germany. In general, real estate securities seem to represent an asset class distinct from bonds and stocks in most countries. In the long run they seem provide a potential for further diversification of asset portfolios. Additionally, real estate stocks provide a (weak) hedge against consumer price inflation in almost every country.

Suggested Citation

  • Westerheide, Peter, 2006. "Cointegration of real estate stocks and REITs with common stocks, bonds and consumer price inflation: an international comparison," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-057, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5451
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/24512/1/dp06057.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Raimond Mauer & Steffen P. Sebastian, 2002. "Inflation Risk Analysis of European Real Estate Securities," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 24(1), pages 47-78.
    2. Séverine CAUCHIE & Martin HOESLI, 2004. "The Integration of Securitized Real Estate and Financial Assets," FAME Research Paper Series rp111, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
    3. Neil R. Ericsson & James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Distributions of error correction tests for cointegration," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 5(2), pages 285-318, June.
    4. Crocker H. Liu & David J. Hartzell & Martin E. Hoesli, 1997. "International Evidence on Real Estate Securities as an Inflation Hedge," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(2), pages 193-221.
    5. Fama, Eugene F. & Schwert, G. William, 1977. "Asset returns and inflation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 115-146, November.
    6. John Okunev & Patrick J. Wilson, 1997. "Using Nonlinear Tests to Examine Integration Between Real Estate and Stock Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(3), pages 487-503.
    7. Eichholtz, Piet M A & Hartzell, David J, 1996. "Property Shares, Appraisals and the Stock Market: An International Perspective," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 163-178, March.
    8. Colin Lizieri & Patrick McAllister & Charles Ward, 2003. "Continental Shift? An Analysis of Convergence Trends in European Real Estate Equities," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 25(1), pages 1-22.
    9. MacKinnon, James G, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 601-618, Nov.-Dec..
    10. F.C. Neil Myer & James R. Webb, 1994. "Retail Stocks, Retail REITs, and Retail Real Estate," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 9(1), pages 65-84.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chyi Lin Lee & Ming-Long Lee, 2012. "Do European real estate stocks hedge inflation? Evidence from developed and emerging markets," ERES eres2012_155, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    2. Bradford Case & Yawei Yang & Yildiray Yildirim, 2012. "Dynamic Correlations Among Asset Classes: REIT and Stock Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 298-318, April.
    3. Aekkachai NITTAYAGASETWAT & Jiroj BURANASIRI, 2016. "Performance Comparison Between Real Estate Securities and Real Estate Investment Using Stochastic Dominance and Mean-Variance Analysis," International Conference on Economic Sciences and Business Administration, Spiru Haret University, vol. 3(1), pages 208-219, October.
    4. Schindler, Felix & Voronkova, Svitlana, 2010. "Linkages between international securitized real estate markets: Further evidence from time-varying and stochastic cointegration," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-051, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Abel Olaleye & Benjamin Ekemode, 2014. "Integration between real estate equity and non-real estate equity," Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 244-255, April.
    6. Chyi Lin Lee & Ming-Long Lee, 2014. "Do European real estate stocks hedge inflation? Evidence from developed and emerging markets," International Journal of Strategic Property Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 178-197, June.
    7. Brad Case & Massimo Guidolin & Yildiray Yildirim, 2014. "Markov Switching Dynamics in REIT Returns: Univariate and Multivariate Evidence on Forecasting Performance," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 42(2), pages 279-342, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    REITs; Real Estate Securities; Cointegration; Stock Markets; Bond Markets;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5451. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ZBW - German National Library of Economics). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/zemande.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.