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Rural-urban inequality in Africa: A panel study of the effects of trade liberalization and financial deepening

  • Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina
  • Lutz, Stefan H.

Using panel data from 39 countries, this paper examines the effects of financial deepening and openness to trade and foreign capital (FDI) on rural-urban inequality in Africa. Four estimations were performed–OLS pooled cross-section, GLS pooled cross-section, fixedeffects model and an adjusted fixed-effects specification with regional dummy terms. We have developed an alternative measure of rural-urban inequality, namely the ratio of growth in agricultural output to growth of manufacturing output. Overall, the econometric results show that openness to trade seems to contribute to reducing rural-urban inequality. However, the empirical evidence does not unambiguously delineate the nature of the impact FDI and financial deepening have on the rural-urban gap. The findings imply that there may be some support for the so-called offsetting-trend in inequality (OTI) hypothesis.

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Paper provided by ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn in its series ZEI Working Papers with number B 06-2004.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zeiwps:b062004
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  12. Krueger, Anne O & Schiff, Maurice & Valdes, Alberto, 1988. "Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economywide Policies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 255-71, September.
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  14. te Velde, Dirk Willem & Morrissey, Oliver, 2003. "Spatial Inequality for Manufacturing Wages in Five African Countries," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  15. Ravallion, Martin, 1998. "Does aggregation hide the harmful effects of inequality on growth?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 73-77, October.
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