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Wandel oder Kontinuität: Ein kritischer Beitrag zur Diskussion um handelsrestriktive Umweltmaßnahmen im Rahmen der WTO

  • Doerr, Eva Maria
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    Das internationale Freihandelsregime wurde in den vergangenen Jahren von wenigen Themen so stark geprägt, wie von seinem Verhältnis zum Umweltrecht. Der vorliegende Beitrag konzeptualisiert und problematisiert den im wissenschaftlichen Diskurs häufig verkürzt dargestellten Zielkonflikt zwischen Handel und Umwelt. Die Annahme, mit der strukturellen Änderung des Freihandelsregimes 1994 habe sich seine Regelsetzung zugunsten restriktiverer Umweltstandards entwickelt, wird anhand eines Vergleiches der beiden WTO-Streitschlichtungsverfahren, US-Tuna und US-Shrimp, bewiesen. Die Ursachen dieser Entwicklung gilt es jedoch kritisch zu hinterfragen. Ein detaillierter Blick auf beide Streitfälle entkräftet supra-national sowie sozialkonstruktivistisch argumentierende Erklärungsmodelle, die die Schlussfolgerung zu-lassen, es habe ein institutioneller bzw. normativer Wandel hin zu einem Greening of the GATT stattgefunden. Stattdessen, so die These, eignet sich vielmehr ein intergouvernementaler Erklärungsansatz, der Entscheidungen der WTO vor dem Hintergrund der rationalen Interessen ihrer Mitgliedsstaaten reflektiert. Um künftig effektiven und nachhaltigen Umweltschutz zu garantieren, bedarf es einer substantiellen Neuorientierung staatlicher Präferenzen, die bisher nicht stattgefunden hat.

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    Paper provided by Free University Berlin, Center for International Political Economy in its series PIPE - Papers on International Political Economy with number 12/2012.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:fubipe:122012
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/polwiss/forschung/oekonomie/ipoe/index.html

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    1. Jackson, J.H., 1992. "World Trade Rules and Environmental Policies: Congruence or Conflict?," Working Papers 317, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    2. Steve Charnovitz, 2007. "The WTO's Environmental Progress," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 685-706, September.
    3. Putnam, Robert D., 1988. "Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 427-460, June.
    4. Fischer, Carolyn & Hoffmann, Sandra & Yoshino , Yutaka, 2002. "Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental Policies," Discussion Papers dp-02-28, Resources For the Future.
    5. Elizabeth R. DeSombre & J. Samuel Barkin, 2002. "Turtles and Trade: The WTO's Acceptance of Environmental Trade Restrictions," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 2(1), pages 12-18, 02.
    6. Olav Schram stokke, 2004. "Trade Measures and Climate Compliance: Institutional Interplay Between WTO and the Marrakesh Accords," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 339-357, December.
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