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Relationship lending: empirical evidence for Germany


  • Schmieder, Christian
  • Memmel, Christoph
  • Stein, Ingrid


Relationship lending is a common practice in credit financing all over the world, particularly in Germany. On the basis of a comprehensive data set comprising information on firm-bank relationships for more than 16,000 observations, this study analyses the determinants of relationship lending in Germany. We find that small, young and R&D-intensive firms tend to choose relationship lending. Furthermore, we find that firms with a higher creditworthiness are more likely to choose a relationship lender. We find that the importance of relationship lending stayed roughly constant since the mid 90s.

Suggested Citation

  • Schmieder, Christian & Memmel, Christoph & Stein, Ingrid, 2007. "Relationship lending: empirical evidence for Germany," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2007,14, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp2:6799

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    Cited by:

    1. Goldbach, Stefan & Nitsch, Volker, 2015. "Cutting the credit line: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers 25/2015, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    2. Etumudon Ndidi Asien, 2016. "Determinants of Number of Bankers by Listed Nigerian Firms," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 6(2), pages 1-13, April.
    3. Stein, Ingrid, 2011. "The price impact of lending relationships," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2011,04, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    4. Holl, Dorothee & Schertler, Andrea, 2009. "Why do savings banks transform sight deposits into illiquid assets less intensively than the regulation allows?," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2009,05, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    5. Presbitero, Andrea F. & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2011. "Competition and relationship lending: Friends or foes?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 387-413, July.
    6. Storm, Servaas & Naastepad, C.W.M., 2015. "Crisis and recovery in the German economy: The real lessons," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 11-24.
    7. Lucie Reznakova & Svatopluk Kapounek, 2014. "Is There a Credit Crunch in the Czech Republic?," MENDELU Working Papers in Business and Economics 2014-50, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics.
    8. Haselmann, Rainer & Marsch, Katharina & Weder di Mauro, Beatrice, 2009. "Real Effects of Bank Governance: Bank Ownership and Corporate Innovation," CEPR Discussion Papers 7488, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Hachem, Kinda, 2011. "Relationship lending and the transmission of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(6), pages 590-600.
    10. Gajewski, Krzysztof & Pawłowska, Małgorzata & Rogowski, Wojciech, 2012. "Relacje firm z bankami w Polsce w świetle danych ze sprawozdawczości bankowej
      [Bank-firm relationships in Poland in the light of data from bank reporting]
      ," MPRA Paper 42544, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 Oct 2012.
    11. Nitsch, Volker & Goldbach, Stefan, 2014. "Bank Credit and Trade: Evidence from Germany," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100534, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    12. Djedidi-Kooli, Salima, 2009. "L’accès au financement des PME en France : quel rôle joué par la structure du système bancaire ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/8354 edited by Etner, François.
    13. Paola Valbonesi & Federico Biagi, 2016. "Incentivising Innovation and Adoption of ICT: ICT Innovation Voucher Programmes," JRC Working Papers JRC104057, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    14. Servaas Storm & C.W.M. Naastepad, "undated". "Crisis and Recovery in the German Economy: The Real Lessons," Working Papers Series 10, Institute for New Economic Thinking.
    15. repec:eee:jpolmo:v:39:y:2017:i:6:p:1102-1116 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Artur Tarassow, 2015. "Financial Investment Constraints. A Panel Threshold Application to German Firm Level Data," Macroeconomics and Finance Series 201405, Hamburg University, Department Wirtschaft und Politik.
    17. James Barth & Dongyun Lin & Keven Yost, 2011. "Small and Medium Enterprise Financing in Transition Economies," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 39(1), pages 19-38, March.
    18. Mager, Ferdinand & Schmieder, Christian, 2008. "Stress testing of real credit portfolios," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2008,17, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    19. Tlili, Rim, 2012. "Comment justifier la multibancarité au sein des PME ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/10919 edited by Etner, François.
    20. Ogura, Yoshiaki, 2012. "Lending competition and credit availability for new firms: Empirical study with the price cost margin in regional loan markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1822-1838.

    More about this item


    Relationship banking; German banking system; SME;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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