IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedhpr/993.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

SMEs and bank lending relationships: the impact of mergers

Author

Listed:
  • Hans Degryse
  • Nancy Masschelein
  • Janet Mitchell

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of bank mergers on firm-bank lending relationships using information from individual loan contracts in Belgium. We analyze the effects of bank mergers on the probability of borrowers maintaining their lending relationships and on their ability to continue tapping bank credit. The Belgian financial environment reflects a number of interesting features: high banking sector concentration; “in-market” mergers with large target banks; importance of large banks in providing external finance to SMEs; and low numbers of bank lending relationships maintained by SMEs. ; We find that bank mergers generate short-term and longer-term effects on borrowers' probability of losing a lending relationship and on credit availability. Mergers also have heterogeneous impacts across borrower types, including borrowers of acquiring and target banks, borrowers of differing size, borrowers with single versus multiple relationships, and borrowers with differing relationship intensities. Firms borrowing from acquiring banks are less likely to lose their lending relationship, while target bank borrowers are more likely to lose their relationship or see their credit availability harmed. Overlap borrowers – borrowing from two of the merging banks – are less likely to lose their relationship than firms borrowing from only one of the merging banks or firms borrowing from nonmerging banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Hans Degryse & Nancy Masschelein & Janet Mitchell, 2005. "SMEs and bank lending relationships: the impact of mergers," Proceedings 993, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhpr:993
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2000. "What Determines the Number of Bank Relationships? Cross-Country Evidence," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 26-56, January.
    2. Carletti, Elena, 2004. "The structure of bank relationships, endogenous monitoring, and loan rates," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 58-86, January.
    3. Paul Klemperer, 1995. "Competition when Consumers have Switching Costs: An Overview with Applications to Industrial Organization, Macroeconomics, and International Trade," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 515-539.
    4. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
    5. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
    6. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    7. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2005. "Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 231-266, February.
    8. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
    9. Kim, Moshe & Kliger, Doron & Vale, Bent, 2003. "Estimating switching costs: the case of banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 25-56, January.
    10. Elsas, Ralf, 2005. "Empirical determinants of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 32-57, January.
    11. Fabio Panetta & Fabiano Schivardi & Matthew Shum, 2009. "Do Mergers Improve Information? Evidence from the Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(4), pages 673-709, June.
    12. Jason Karceski & Steven Ongena & David C. Smith, 2005. "The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Commercial Borrower Welfare," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(4), pages 2043-2082, August.
    13. Paola Sapienza, 2002. "The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 329-367, February.
    14. Houston, Joel F. & James, Christopher M. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 2001. "Where do merger gains come from? Bank mergers from the perspective of insiders and outsiders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 285-331, May.
    15. Jan Bouckaert & Hans Degryse, 2004. "Softening Competition by Inducing Switching in Credit Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 27-52, March.
    16. Farinha, Luisa A. & Santos, Joao A. C., 2002. "Switching from Single to Multiple Bank Lending Relationships: Determinants and Implications," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 124-151, April.
    17. Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-1066, November.
    18. Udell, Gregory F., 1989. "Loan quality, commercial loan review and loan officer contracting," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 367-382, July.
    19. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1995. "Small business credit availability: how important is size of lender?," Working Papers 95-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    20. Rebel A. Cole & Lawrence G. Goldberg & Lawrence J. White, 1997. "Cookie-Cutter versus Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 98-022, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
    21. Robert Hauswald & Robert Marquez, 2003. "Information Technology and Financial Services Competition," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(3), pages 921-948, July.
    22. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    23. Scott, Jonathan A & Dunkelberg, William C, 2003. " Bank Mergers and Small Firm Financing," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(6), pages 999-1017, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Kilian Huber, 2015. "The Persistence of a Banking Crisis," CEP Discussion Papers dp1389, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    2. Christa Hainz & Laurent Weill & Christophe Godlewski, 2013. "Bank Competition and Collateral: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 131-148, October.
    3. Stijn Claessens, 2009. "Competition in the Financial Sector: Overview of Competition Policies," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 24(1), pages 83-118, April.
    4. Fabián Duarte & Andrea Repetto & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 2005. "The Effects on Firm Borrowing Costs of Bank M&As," Documentos de Trabajo 206, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    5. António Pedro Soares Pinto & Mário Gomes Augusto & Pedro M. Gama, 2010. "Bank Relationships And Corporate Governance: A Survey Of The Literature From The Perspective Of Smes," Portuguese Journal of Management Studies, ISEG, Universidade de Lisboa, vol. 0(1), pages 65-85.
    6. Schmieder, Christian & Memmel, Christoph & Stein, Ingrid, 2007. "Relationship lending: empirical evidence for Germany," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2007,14, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    7. Pierrick Baraton & Florian LEON, 2018. "Do banks and microfinance institutions compete? Microevidence from Madagascar," CREA Discussion Paper Series 18-04, Center for Research in Economic Analysis, University of Luxembourg.
    8. Alessandrini, Pietro & Calcagnini, Giorgio & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2008. "Asset restructuring strategies in bank acquisitions: Does distance between dealing partners matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 699-713, May.
    9. Rudanko, Leena & Krusell, Per, 2015. "Unions in a frictional labor market," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86277, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Roman, Raluca & Berger, Allen N. & Sedunov, John, 2016. "Do bank bailouts reduce or increase systemic risk? the effects of TARP on financial system stability," Research Working Paper RWP 16-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    11. Stijn Claessens, 2006. "Competitive Implications of Cross-Border Banking," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Cross-Border Banking Regulatory Challenges, chapter 11, pages 151-181 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Catherine Fuss & Philip Vermeulen, 2006. "The response of firms\u2019 investment and financing to adverse cash flow shocks : the role of bank relationships," Working Paper Research 87, National Bank of Belgium.
    13. Fungáčová, Zuzana & Shamshur, Anastasiya & Weill, Laurent, 2017. "Does bank competition reduce cost of credit? Cross-country evidence from Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 104-120.
    14. Beck, Thorsten & de Haas, Ralph & Degryse, Hans & Van Horen, Neeltje, 2014. "When Arm’s Length Is Too Far. Relationship Banking over the Business Cycle," CEPR Discussion Papers 10050, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Marlène Isoré, 2011. "International Propagation of Financial Shocks in a Search and Matching Environment," FIW Working Paper series 068, FIW.
    16. BEUSELINCK, Christof & DELOOF, Marc & VANSTRAELEN, Ann, 2011. "Corporate governance and cash policies of multinational corporations," Working Papers 2011020, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
    17. Lev Ratnovski, 2013. "Competition Policy for Modern Banks," IMF Working Papers 13/126, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Flögel, Franz, 2016. "Distance and Modern Banks' Lending to SMEs: Decentralised versus Centralised Banking in Germany," IAT Discussion Papers 16/01, Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT), Westfälische Hochschule, University of Applied Sciences.
    19. Kerl, Cornelia & Niepmann, Friederike, 2014. "What determines the composition of international bank flows?," Staff Reports 681, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank mergers ; Loans; Personal;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedhpr:993. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bernie Flores). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/frbchus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.