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Inequity in long-term care use and unmet need: two sides of the same coin

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  • Garcia-Gomez, P.
  • Hernandez-Quevedo, C.
  • Jimenez-Rubio, D.
  • Oliva, J.

Abstract

International studies have shown evidence on inequity in use of health services of different kinds, depending on the type of health care service analysed. However, equity in the access to long-term care (LTC) services has received much less attention. We investigate the determinants of several LTC services and the existence of unmet need by the disabled population using unique data from a survey conducted on the disabled population in Spain in 2008. We further measure the level of horizontal inequity using methods based on the Concentration Index, a widely used indicator of income-related inequality in health. At the time of the analysis, only those respondents with the highest dependency level were covered by the recently introduced universal LTC system, which allows us to explore whether inequities remain for this subgroup of the population. In addition, we compare results using self-reported versus a more objective indicator of unmet needs. Evidence suggests that after controlling for a wide set of need variables, there is not an equitable distribution of use and unmet need of LTC services in Spain, with socioeconomic status being an important factor in access to LTC. We find that individuals at the higher end of the income distribution utilize a relatively larger share of formal services (provided by a professional), while intensive informal care (provided by friends and family) is concentrated among the worst-off. In terms of unmet needs for LTC services, their distribution depends on the service considered as well as on whether we focus on subjective or objective measures. Interestingly, for the population covered by the new universal LTC system, inequities in most LTC services and unmet needs remain statistically significant and even increase for certain services, in particular, formal services provided by professionals.

Suggested Citation

  • Garcia-Gomez, P. & Hernandez-Quevedo, C. & Jimenez-Rubio, D. & Oliva, J., 2014. "Inequity in long-term care use and unmet need: two sides of the same coin," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 14/02, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  • Handle: RePEc:yor:hectdg:14/02
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Röttger, Julia & Blümel, Miriam & Köppen, Julia & Busse, Reinhard, 2016. "Forgone care among chronically ill patients in Germany—Results from a cross-sectional survey with 15,565 individuals," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 170-178.
    2. Pilar (P.) Garcia-Gomez & Helena M Hernandez-Pizarro & Guillem Lopez-Casasnovas & Joaquim Vidiella-Martin, 2019. "Unravelling Hidden Inequities in a Universal Public Long-Term Care System," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 19-011/V, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Scheil-Adlung, Xenia., 2015. "Long-term care protection for older persons : a review of coverage deficits in 46 countries," ILO Working Papers 994886493402676, International Labour Organization.
    4. repec:eee:socmed:v:224:y:2019:i:c:p:127-137 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:socmed:v:191:y:2017:i:c:p:30-37 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Amadeo Fuenmayor & Rafael Granell & María Angeles Tortosa, 2016. "Quasi-markets Targets and the Evaluation of Nursing-home Funding in the Valencian Region," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 216(1), pages 13-38, March.
    7. Carla Blázquez-Fernández & David Cantarero-Prieto & Patricio Pérez-González, 2018. "Unmet health care needs among the working-age population. Evidence from the great recession in Spain," Working Papers. Collection B: Regional and sectoral economics 1806, Universidade de Vigo, GEN - Governance and Economics research Network.
    8. Peña-Longobardo, Luz María & Oliva-Moreno, Juan & García-Armesto, Sandra & Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina, 2016. "The Spanish long-term care system in transition: Ten years since the 2006 Dependency Act," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 120(10), pages 1177-1182.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Disability; equity in utilisation; dependency; long-term care; unmet needs; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • I14 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Inequality
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination

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