Taxation for the 21st Century: The Automated Payment Transaction (APT) Tax
This paper examines the desirability and feasibility of replacing the present system of personal and corporate income, sales, excise, capital gains, import and export duties, gift and estate taxes with a single comprehensive revenue neutral Automated Payment Transaction (APT) tax. In its simplest form, the APT tax consists of a flat tax levied on all transactions. The tax is automatically assessed and collected when transactions are settled through the electronic technology of the banking/ payments system. The APT tax introduces progressivity through the tax base since the volume of final payments includes exchanges of titles to property and is therefore more highly skewed than the conventional income or consumption tax base. The wealthy carry out a disproportionate share of total transactions and therefore bear a disproportionate burden of the tax despite its flat rate structure. The automated recording of all APT tax payments by firms and individuals creates a degree of transparency and perceived fairness that induces greater tax compliance. Also, the tax has lower administrative and compliance cost. Like all taxes, the APT tax creates new distortions whose costs must be weighted against the benefits obtained by replacing the current tax system. ---Edgar L. Feige
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mark M. Pitt & Joel Slemrod, 1988.
"The Compliance Cost of Itemizing Deductions: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns,"
NBER Working Papers
2526, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pitt, Mark M & Slemrod, Joel, 1989. "The Compliance Cost of Itemizing Deductions: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1224-32, December.
- Aaron, Henry J, 1989. "Politics and the Professors Revisited," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 1-15, May.
- Joel Slemrod & Nikki Sorum, 1985. "The Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System," NBER Working Papers 1401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 1998. "Transaction Taxes and Financial Market Equilibrium," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71(1), pages 81-118, January.
- Edgar L. Feige, 2005. "Overseas Holdings Of U.S.Currency And The Underground Economy," Macroeconomics 0501022, EconWPA.
- James Tobin, 1978.
"A Proposal for International Monetary Reform,"
Eastern Economic Journal,
Eastern Economic Association, vol. 4(3-4), pages 153-159, Jul/Oct.
- Slemrod, Joel, 1990.
"Optimal Taxation and Optimal Tax Systems,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 157-78, Winter.
- Stiglitz, J.E., 1989. "Using Tax Policy To Curb Speculative Short-Term Trading," Papers t2, Columbia - Center for Futures Markets.
- Kaplow, Louis, 1996. "How Tax Complexity and Enforcement Affect the Equity and Efficiency of the Income Tax," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 49(1), pages 135-50, March.
- Leslie E. Papke, 1989. "International Differences in Capital Taxation and Corporate Borrowing Behavior: Evidence from the U.S. Withholding Tax," NBER Working Papers 3129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Umlauf, Steven R., 1993. "Transaction taxes and the behavior of the Swedish stock market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 227-240, April.
- Wilson, John Douglas, 1989. "On the Optimal Tax Base for Commodity Taxation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1196-1206, December.
- A. Pat White & Paul Kupiec & Gregory Duffee, 1990. "A securities transactions tax: beyond the rhetoric, what can we really say?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 133, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2000. "Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth: The Common Stock Investment Performance of Individual Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 773-806, 04.
- P. Bernd Spahn, 1995. "International Financial Flows and Transactions Taxes; Survey and Options," IMF Working Papers 95/60, International Monetary Fund.
- Louis Kaplow, 1995. "How Tax Complexity and Enforcement Affect the Equity and Efficiency of The Income Tax," NBER Working Papers 5391, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Summers, L.H. & Summers, V.P., 1989. "When Financial Markets Work Too Well : A Cautious Case For A Securities Transactions Tax," Papers t12, Columbia - Center for Futures Markets.
- Edgar L. Feige, 2005. "The Theory And Measurement Of Cash Payments; A Case Study Of The Netherlands," Macroeconomics 0501025, EconWPA.
- Ballard, Charles L & Shoven, John B & Whalley, John, 1985. "General Equilibrium Computations of the Marginal Welfare Costs of Taxes in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 128-38, March.
- John Y. Campbell & Kenneth A. Froot, 1993.
"International Experiences with Securities Transaction Taxes,"
NBER Working Papers
4587, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Y. Campbell & Kenneth A. Froot, 1994. "International Experiences with Securities Transaction Taxes," NBER Chapters, in: The Internationalization of Equity Markets, pages 277-308 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1979. "A Note on Optimal Taxation and Administrative Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 475-80, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwppe:0106001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.