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Using Instrumental Variables to Estimate the Share of Backward- Looking Firms


  • Lars Sondergaard

    (Georgetown University)


This paper examines the small-sample distribution of the instrumental variables (IV) estimation procedure employed by Gali and Gertler (1999) to assess the empirical fit of the New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) and the hybrid Phillips Curve (HPC). Their estimation method is now widely used to assess the importance of firms that act in a backward- looking manner. Unfortunately, the IV method is highly sensitive to the way the hybrid model is normalized. Using Monte Carlo simulations, I find that one normalization used by Gali and Gertler (and others) finds evidence of backward-looking firms even when there is none by construction. In addition, the IV estimates are also sensitive to the choice of normalization in a broader range of specifications. Using Monte Carlo experiments, I identify which normalizations work better than others. Finally, I find that the bootstrapped standard errors are, not surprisingly, bigger than the asymptotic ones reported by Gali and Gertler. When using my preferred normalization, I find that the NKPC is rejected at the 5 percent but not at the 1 percent level.

Suggested Citation

  • Lars Sondergaard, 2003. "Using Instrumental Variables to Estimate the Share of Backward- Looking Firms," Macroeconomics 0308009, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:0308009 Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on IBM PC; to print on HP;

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jeremy B. Rudd & Karl Whelan, 2002. "Should monetary policy target labor's share of income?," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Mar.
    2. Hansen, Lars Peter & Sargent, Thomas J., 1980. "Formulating and estimating dynamic linear rational expectations models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 7-46, May.
    3. Yun, Tack, 1996. "Nominal price rigidity, money supply endogeneity, and business cycles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 345-370, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paloviita, Maritta & Mayes, David, 2005. "The use of real-time information in Phillips-curve relationships for the euro area," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 415-434, December.

    More about this item


    New Keynesian Phillips Curve; Hybrid Phillips Curve; Normalization;

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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