Optimum Currency Areas and Shock Asymmetry A Comparison of Europe and the United States
The authors examine the optimality of the European Monetary Union (EMU) by estimating the degree of asymmetry in shocks affecting thirteen European countries and comparing the results to those obtained for nine U.S. regions. First, they identify supply shocks and real and nominal demand shocks by imposing restrictions on the long-term effects of these on the level of output, prices and money. This decomposition is necessary to develop a measure of shock asymmetry that is not affected by country-specific monetary policy disturbances. Next, the unobservable common and specific components of structural shocks are identified by means of state-space models. The results show that both supply and real demand shocks affecting the regions of the United States are much more symmetrical than those affecting the European countries. In Europe, only Germany and Switzerland are strongly related to the symmetrical component of shocks. The fact that Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Sweden are not statistically related to the common component of the shocks suggests that they may face significant adjustment costs by participating in the European Monetary Union. However, these countries appear to be characterized by a smaller degree of nominal rigidity, which could partly offset the impact of asymmetrical shock by facilitating the adjustment. Shocks affecting France, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Spain are largely asymmetrical, though statistically related to the common components.
|Date of creation:||22 Jun 1994|
|Date of revision:||19 Aug 1994|
|Note:||50 printed pages, Compressed PostScript file. If you have trouble viewing the complete document, please print it out on a postscript printer. Other recent Bank of Canada working papers are listed on the last page of this report.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wirjanto, T.S. & Amano, R.A., 1993. "The Dynamic Demand for Money in Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom," Working Papers 9314, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics.
- P Clark & D Laxton, 1997. "Phillips Curves," CEP Discussion Papers dp0344, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Simon van Norden & Huntley Schaller & ), 1995.
"Speculative Behaviour, Regime-Switching, and Stock Market Crashes,"
- Van Norden, S. & Schaller, H., 1996. "Speculative Behaviour, Regime-Switching and Stock Market Crashes," Staff Working Papers 96-13, Bank of Canada.
- Amano, R. A. & van Norden, S., 1998. "Oil prices and the rise and fall of the US real exchange rate," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 299-316, April.
- Robert A. Amano & Simon van Norden, 1995. "Oil Prices and the Rise and Fall of the U.S. Real Exchange Rate," International Finance 9502001, EconWPA.
- Lafrance, Robert & St-Amant, Pierre, 2000. "Les zones monétaires optimales," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 76(4), pages 577-612, décembre. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpif:9406001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.