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Market imperfections, equilibrium and arbitrage

  • Elyès Jouini

The theory of asset pricing, which takes its roots in the Arrow-Debreu model (Theory of value [1959, chap. 7]), the Black and Sholes formula (1973) and Cox and Ross (1976 a and b), has been formalized in a general framework by Harrison and Kreps (1979), Harrison and Pliska (1979) and Kreps (1981). In these models, securities markets are assumed to be frictionless. The main result is that a price process is arbitrage free (or, equivalently, compatible with some equilibrium) if and only if it is, when appropriately renormalized, a martingale for some equivalent probability measure. The theory of pricing by arbitrage follows from there. Contingent claims can be priced by taking their expected value with respect to an equivalent martingale measure. If this value is unique, the claim is said to be priced by arbitrage. The new probabilities can be interpreted as state prices (the prices of $1$ dollar tomorrow in each state of the world) or as the intertemporal marginal rates of substitution of an agent maximizing his expected utility. In this work, we will propose a general model that takes frictions into account.

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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Finance with number 0312005.

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Length: 55 pages
Date of creation: 08 Dec 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0312005
Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on Win98; pages: 55
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