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Efficiency with Non-Convexities: Extending the "Scandinavian Consensus" Approaches

  • Peter J. Hammond
  • Antonio Villar

October 1997 (Now published: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 100 (1998), 11--32.) There are two distinct "Scandinavian consensus" approaches to public good supply, both based on agents' willingness to pay. A Wicksell--Foley public competitive equilibrium arises from a negative consensus in which no change of public environment, together with associated taxes and subsidies which finance it, will be unanimously approved. Alternatively, in a Lindahl or valuation equilibrium, charges for the public environment induce a positive consensus. To allow general non-convexities to be regarded as aspects of the public environment, we extend recent generalizations of these equilibrium notions and prove counterparts to both the usual fundamental efficiency theorems of welfare economics. Journal of Economic Literature classification: H41, D51, D6 Keywords: non-convexities, welfare theorems, public goods, public competitive equilibrium, politico-economic equilibrium, Lindahl equilibrium.

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Paper provided by Stanford University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 97036.

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Handle: RePEc:wop:stanec:97036
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  1. Antonio Villar, 1994. "Existence and efficiency of equilibrium in economics with increasing returns to scale: an exposition," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 18(2), pages 205-243, May.
  2. Dreze, Jacques H & de la Vallee Poussin, D, 1971. "A Tatonnement Process for Public Goods," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(114), pages 133-50, April.
  3. Malinvaud, Edmond, 1972. "Prices for Individual Consumption, Quantity Indicators for Collective Consumption," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(4), pages 385-405, October.
  4. Diamantaras, Dimitrios & Gilles, Robert P, 1996. "The Pure Theory of Public Goods: Efficiency, Dencentralization, and the Core," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(4), pages 851-60, November.
  5. Hammond, Peter J, 1979. "Straightforward Individual Incentive Compatibility in Large Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 263-82, April.
  6. Diamantaras, Dimitrios & Gilles, Robert P & Scotchmer, Suzanne, 1996. "Decentralization of Pareto Optima in Economies with Public Projects, Nonessential Private Goods and Convex Costs," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 555-64, October.
  7. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Silvestre, Joaquim, 1991. "A note on cost-share equilibrium and owner-consumers," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 204-214, June.
  8. Hammond, Peter J, 1987. "Markets as Constraints: Multilateral Incentive Compatibility in Continuum Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(3), pages 399-412, July.
  9. Egbert Dierker, 1986. "When does marginal cost pricing lead to Pareto efficiency?," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 41-66, December.
  10. Bergstrom, Theodore C., 1970. "A "Scandinavian consensus" solution for efficient income distribution among nonmalevolent consumers," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 383-398, December.
  11. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Silvestre, Joaquim, 1989. "Cost share equilibria: A Lindahlian approach," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 239-256, April.
  12. Kaneko, Mamoru, 1977. "The ratio equilibrium and a voting game in a public goods economy," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 123-136, December.
  13. Brown, Donald J. & Heal, Geoffrey, 1980. "Two-part tariffs, marginal cost pricing and increasing returns in a general equilibrium model," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 25-49, February.
  14. Grandmont, J. M. & McFadden, D., 1972. "A technical note on classical gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 109-125, May.
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