The Norwegian Banks in the Nordic Consortia: A Case of International Strategic Alliances in Banking
Despite the scholarly interest in joint ventures and strategic alliances, the consortium bank movement represents an under-researched phase in post-war banking history. From 1964 to the mid-1980s, many of the largest banks in the world, including the Nordic banks, entered into international strategic alliances. Almost all of these alliances are now defunct. We follow the Norwegian banks in the Nordic consortia and find that domestic rivals do not cooperate but international rivals do. Legal prohibitions in the Nordic countries on entry by foreign banks underpinned the cooperation. The cooperation broke down when changes in domestic regulations permitted the Nordic banks to establish operations in each others' domestic markets.
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