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The International Expansion of the Norwegian Banks

Author

Listed:
  • M. Boldt-Christmas
  • S. F. Jacobsen
  • A. Tschoegl

Abstract

We discuss the expansion of Norwegian banks abroad in the post-Second World War era. The Norwegian case gives us an opportunity to examine the determinants of the strategies that banks from a small country have followed in their international expansion. At least two issues emerge as important. The first issue is the role of regulation as goad and handicap to internationalisation. The second issue is the role of competition and co-operation (including joint ventures) between banks. Both regulation and competition and co-operation influenced when, where, how and why the Norwegian banks expanded abroad.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Boldt-Christmas & S. F. Jacobsen & A. Tschoegl, 2001. "The International Expansion of the Norwegian Banks," Business History, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(3), pages 79-104.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:bushst:v:43:y:2001:i:3:p:79-104
    DOI: 10.1080/713999226
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jacobsen, Siv Fagerland & Tschoegl, Adrian E, 1999. "The Norwegian Banks in the Nordic Consortia: A Case of International Strategic Alliances in Banking," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 137-165, March.
    2. Engwall, L. & Wallenstål, M., 1988. "Tit for tat in small steps: the internationalization of Swedish banks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3-4), pages 147-155.
    3. Kindleberger, Charles P., 1983. "International banks as leaders or followers of international business : An historical perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 583-595, December.
    4. Ball, Clifford A. & Tschoegl, Adrian E., 1982. "The Decision to Establish a Foreign Bank Branch or Subsidiary: An Application of Binary Classification Procedures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(03), pages 411-424, September.
    5. Heinkel, Robert L. & Levi, Maurice D., 1992. "The structure of international banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 251-272, June.
    6. Edward Brown Flowers, 1976. "Oligopolistic Reactions in European and Canadian Direct Investment in the United States," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 7(2), pages 43-56, June.
    7. Chwo-Ming J Yu & Kiyohiko Ito, 1988. "Oligopolistic Reaction and Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of the U.S. Tire and Textiles Industries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(3), pages 449-460, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tschoegl, Adrian E., 2002. "Entry and survival: the case of foreign banks in Norway," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 131-153, June.
    2. Hans Degryse & Steven Ongena, 2002. "Bank-Firm Relationships and International Banking Markets," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 401-417.
    3. Merrett, D. T., 2002. "The internationalization of Australian banks," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 12(4-5), pages 377-397.
    4. Gino Cattani & Adrian E. Tschoegl, 2002. "An Evolutionary View of Internationalization: Chase Manhattan Bank, 1917 to 1996," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 02-37, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • N24 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - Europe: 1913-

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