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The International Expansion of the Norwegian Banks

  • M. Boldt-Christmas
  • S. F. Jacobsen
  • A. Tschoegl

We discuss the expansion of Norwegian banks abroad in the post-Second World War era. The Norwegian case gives us an opportunity to examine the determinants of the strategies that banks from a small country have followed in their international expansion. At least two issues emerge as important. The first issue is the role of regulation as goad and handicap to internationalisation. The second issue is the role of competition and co-operation (including joint ventures) between banks. Both regulation and competition and co-operation influenced when, where, how and why the Norwegian banks expanded abroad.

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File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713999226
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Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Business History.

Volume (Year): 43 (2001)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 79-104

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Handle: RePEc:taf:bushst:v:43:y:2001:i:3:p:79-104
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  1. Kindleberger, Charles P., 1983. "International banks as leaders or followers of international business : An historical perspective," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 583-595, December.
  2. Edward Brown Flowers, 1976. "Oligopolistic Reactions in European and Canadian Direct Investment in the United States," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 7(2), pages 43-56, June.
  3. Engwall, L. & Wallenstål, M., 1988. "Tit for tat in small steps: the internationalization of Swedish banks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3-4), pages 147-155.
  4. Ball, Clifford A. & Tschoegl, Adrian E., 1982. "The Decision to Establish a Foreign Bank Branch or Subsidiary: An Application of Binary Classification Procedures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(03), pages 411-424, September.
  5. Jacobsen, Siv Fagerland & Tschoegl, Adrian E, 1999. "The Norwegian Banks in the Nordic Consortia: A Case of International Strategic Alliances in Banking," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 137-65, March.
  6. Heinkel, Robert L. & Levi, Maurice D., 1992. "The structure of international banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 251-272, June.
  7. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-80677 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Chwo-Ming J Yu & Kiyohiko Ito, 1988. "Oligopolistic Reaction and Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of the U.S. Tire and Textiles Industries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 449-460, September.
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