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Commuting and Panel Spatial Interaction Models: Evidence of Variation of the Distance-Effect over Time and Space


  • Jos Van Ommeren


  • Wouter Vermeulen



We apply spatial interaction models using panel data to explain commuting behaviour in the Netherlands. Our main conclusion is that the distance-decay effect is not constant over time and that changes in this effect are region specific. In more densely populated regions the change in the distance-decay parameter is small suggesting that regional increases in congestion have a large negative effect on the increases in average commuting distance. The panel spatial interaction model we derive is well-suited for testing significance of the centrality index (an often used variable in spatial interaction models). Although evidence is found for competition effects in a pooled cross section framework, controlling for time invariant unobserved heterogeneity renders this relation spurious.

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  • Jos Van Ommeren & Wouter Vermeulen, 2003. "Commuting and Panel Spatial Interaction Models: Evidence of Variation of the Distance-Effect over Time and Space," ERSA conference papers ersa03p127, European Regional Science Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa03p127

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