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The impact of farm credit in Pakistan

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  • Khandker, Shahidur R.
  • Faruqee, Rashidur R.

Abstract

Both formal, and informal loans matter in agriculture. But formal lenders provide much more in production lending, than do informal lenders, often at a higher cost than what they can recover. The Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP), for example, providing about 90 percent of formal loans in rural areas, incurs high costs on loan defaults. Like other governments, the Government of Pakistan subsidized the formal scheme on the grounds that lending to agriculture is a high-risk activity, because of covariate risk. Because farm credit schemes are subsidized, policymakers must know if these schemes are worth supporting. Using recent data from a large household survey from rural Pakistan, the authors estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ADBP loans. To estimate credit's impact, they use a two-stage method, which takes into account the endogeneity of borrowing. Clearly, formal lenders are biased toward larger farmers with collateral. Large landowners, who tend to represent only four percent of rural households, get 42 percent of formal loans. Landless, and subsistence farmers, who represent more than 69 percent of rural households, receive only 23 percent of formal loans. ADBP loans improve household welfare but, although large farmers receive most of ADBP finance, the impact of credit is greater for small farmers than for large farmers. Large landowners use formal loans unproductively. Because the ADBP scheme is subsidized, it is not cost-effective for delivering rural credit. It would be more cost-effective is small farmers were better targeted instead.

Suggested Citation

  • Khandker, Shahidur R. & Faruqee, Rashidur R., 2001. "The impact of farm credit in Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2653, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2653
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ecosys:v:41:y:2017:i:3:p:420-432 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. James Roumasset, 2004. "Rural Institutions, Agricultural Development, and Pro-Poor Economic Growth," Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), vol. 1(1), pages 61-82, June.
    3. Phinseng Channgakham, 2006. "The effects of a fertilizer loan on dry-season rice cultivated areas in Laos," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 15(12), pages 1-8.
    4. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2006:i:12:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Gustavo Anriquez & Alberto Valdes, 2006. "Determinants of Farm Revenue in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 281-301.
    6. World Bank, 2002. "Pakistan Development Policy Review : A New Dawn?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15425, The World Bank.
    7. Amendola,Alessandra & Boccia,Marinella & Mele,Gianluca & Sensini,Luca, 2016. "Financial access and household welfare : evidence from Mauritania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7533, The World Bank.
    8. Zezza, Alberto & Winters, Paul C. & Davis, Benjamin & Carletto, Calogero & Covarrubias, Katia & Quinones, Esteban & Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Di Giuseppe, Stefania, 2007. "Rural Household Access to Assets and Agrarian Institutions: A Cross Country Comparison," 106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France 7925, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    9. Gori Maia, Alexandre & Eusebio, Gabriela S. & Silveira, Rodrigo L. F., 2016. "Impact of microcredit on small-farm agricultural production: evidence from Brazil," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 235682, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    10. Swaminathan, Hema & Findeis, Jill L., 2003. "Impact Of Credit On Labor Allocation And Consumption Patterns In Malawi," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22118, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    11. Nguyen Viet Cuong & Minh Thu Pham & Nguyet Pham Minh & Vu Thieu & Duong Toan, 2007. "Poverty Targeting and Impact of a Governmental Micro-credit Program in Vietnam," Working Papers PMMA 2007-29, PEP-PMMA.
    12. Nguyen Viet CUONG, 2008. "Is A Governmental Micro-Credit Program For The Poor Really Pro-Poor? Evidence From Vietnam," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 46(2), pages 151-187.
    13. Njagi, Njeru Timothy, 2012. "An Investigation into the Possibility of a Rice Green Revolution in Sub Saharan Africa: Lessons from the MWEA Irrigation Scheme in Kenya," Dissertations-Doctoral 207754, AgEcon Search.
    14. Chloupkova, Jarka & Bjornskov, Christian, 2001. "Reaping the Gains from Trade: Constraints and Opportunities of Agricultural Credit Markets," Unit of Economics Working papers 24189, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Food and Resource Economic Institute.
    15. Cuong H. Nguyen, 2007. "Determinants of Credit Participation and Its Impact on Household Consumption: Evidence From Rural Vietnam," CERT Discussion Papers 0703, Centre for Economic Reform and Transformation, Heriot Watt University.
    16. Widiyanto bin Mislan Cokro Hadisumarto & Abdul Ghafar B. Ismail, 2010. "Improving the effectiveness of Islamic micro-financing: Learning from BMT experience," Humanomics: The International Journal of Systems and Ethics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 26(1), pages 65-75, February.
    17. M. A. Baqui Khalily, 2004. "Quantitative approach to impact analysis of microfinance programmes in Bangladesh-what have we learned?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 331-353.

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