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Anti-corruption policies and programs : a framework for evaluation

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  • Huther, Jeff
  • Shah, Anwar

Abstract

The anti-corruption strategy the World Bank announced in September 1997 defined corruption as the"use of public office for private gain"and called for the Bank to address corruption along four dimensions: 1) Preventing fraud and corruption in Bank projects; 2) Helping countries that request Bank assistance for fighting corruption; 3) Mainstreaming a concern about corruption in Bank work; and 4) Lending active support to international efforts to address corruption. The menu of possible actions to contain corruption (in both countries and Bank projects) is very large, so the authors develop a framework to help assign priorities, depending on views of what does and does not work in specific countries. Their framework, based on public officials'incentives for opportunistic behavior, distinguishes between highly corrupt and largely corruption-free societies. Certain conditions encourage public officials to seek or accept corruption: a) The expected gains from undertaking a corrupt act exceed the expected costs. b) Little weight is placed on the cost that corruption imposes on others. In a country with heavy corruption and poor governance, the priorities in anti-corruption efforts would then be to establish rule of law, strengthen institutions of participation and accountability, and limit government interventions to focus on core mandates. In a country with moderate corruption and fair governance, the priorities would be decentralization and economic reform, results-oriented management and evaluation, and the introduction of incentives for competitive delivery of public services. In a country with little corruption and strong governance, the priorities might be explicit anti-corruption agencies and programs, stronger financial management, increased public and government awareness, no-bribery pledges, efforts to fry the"big fish,"and so on.

Suggested Citation

  • Huther, Jeff & Shah, Anwar, 2000. "Anti-corruption policies and programs : a framework for evaluation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2501, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2501
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Blackburn, Keith & Forgues-Puccio, Gonzalo F., 2009. "Why is corruption less harmful in some countries than in others?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 797-810, December.
    2. World Bank, 2001. "Combating Corruption in the Philippines : An Update," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15435, The World Bank.
    3. Anwar Shah, 2006. "Corruption and Decentralized Public Governance," Chapters,in: Handbook of Fiscal Federalism, chapter 19 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Tugrul Gurgur & Anwar Shah, 2014. "Localization and corruption: panacea or pandora's box?," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 15(1), pages 109-136, May.
    5. Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge & Tungodden, Bertil, 2003. "Fiscal Corruption: A Vice or a Virtue?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 1459-1467, August.
    6. Maurizio Bovi, 2003. "The Nature Of The Underground Economy. Some Evidence From Oecd Countries," ISAE Working Papers 26, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
    7. Tausch, Arno, 2009. "Schaufenster Griechenland – was kann aus dem aktuellen Debakel für das soziale Europa gelernt werden?
      [Showcase Greece – what can be learnt from the current debacle for a Social Europe?]]
      ," MPRA Paper 14251, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Matei, Ani & Matei, Lucica, 2010. "Assessing the Anti-corruption Strategies: Theoretical and Empirical Models," MPRA Paper 30035, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Jan 2011.
    9. Raghbendra Jha & Hari K Nagarajan & Anirudh Tagat, 2017. "Bribery, democracy and their impact on governance and welfare: The case of rural India," ASARC Working Papers 2017-03, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    10. Bryane Michael, 2004. "Explaining organizational change in international development: the role of complexity in anti-corruption work," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(8), pages 1067-1088.
    11. Mikael Priks, 2011. "Judiciaries in corrupt societies," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 75-88, March.
    12. Keith Blackburn & Rashmi Sarmah, 2008. "Corruption, development and demography," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 341-362, October.
    13. Matei, Ani & Matei, Lucica, 2010. "Anti-corruption strategies in some South-Eastern European states.An empirical study on the impact of the government performance," MPRA Paper 24741, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Sep 2010.
    14. Keith Blackburn & Niloy Bosey & Salvatore Capasso, 2008. "Living With Corruption: Threshold Effects in Red Tape and Rent Seeking," Working Papers 4_2008, D.E.S. (Department of Economic Studies), University of Naples "Parthenope", Italy.
    15. Dimakou, Ourania, 2013. "Monetary and fiscal institutional designs," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 1141-1166.
    16. Ogus, Anthony, 2004. "The Importance of Legal Infrastructure for Regulation (and Deregulation) in Developing Countries," Centre on Regulation and Competition (CRC) Working papers 30603, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM).
    17. Stephen Sherlock, 2002. "Combating Corruption in Indonesia? The Ombudsman and the Assets Auditing Commission," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(3), pages 367-383.
    18. Carson, Lindsey D. & Prado, Mariana Mota, 2016. "Using institutional multiplicity to address corruption as a collective action problem: Lessons from the Brazilian case," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 56-65.
    19. Franklin Steves & Alan Rousso, 2004. "Anti-corruption programmes in post-communist transition countries and changes in the business environment, 1999-2002," Law and Economics 0401004, EconWPA.
    20. Raphael H. Solomon, 2005. "Pocket Banks and Out-of-Pocket Losses: Links between Corruption and Contagion," Staff Working Papers 05-23, Bank of Canada.
    21. repec:wbk:wbpubs:26685 is not listed on IDEAS

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