Mutual funds and institutional investments - what is the most efficient way to set up individual accounts in a social security system?
One of the main criticisms of the defined-contribution, individual-account components of social security systems is that they are too expensive. The authors investigate the cost-effectiveness of three options for constructing funded social security pillars: * Individual accounts invested in the retail market with relatively open choice. * Individual accounts invested in the institutional market with constrained choice among investment companies. * A centralized fund without individual accounts or differentiated investments across individuals. The authors asked several questions: What is the most cost-effective way to organize a system with mandatory individual accounts? How does the cost of an efficient individual account system compare with that of a single centralized fund? And are the cost differentials great enough to outweigh other important considerations? The authors concentrate on countries with well-functioning financial markets, such as the United States, but make comparative references to developing countries. Based on empirical evidence about U.S. mutual and institutional funds, the authors found that the retail market (option 1) allows individual investors to benefit from scale economics in asset management - but atthe cost of the high marketing expenses needed to attract large pools of small investments. By contrast, a centralized fund (option 3) can be much cheaper because it achieves scale economies without high marketing costs. But it gives workers no choice and is subject to political manipulation and misallocation of capital. The system of constrained choice (option 2) is much cheaper than the retail option and only slightly more expensive than a single centralized fund. It allows scale economies in asset management and record-keeping while incurring low marketing costs and allowing significant worker choice. It is also more effectively insulated from political interference than a single centralized fund. The authors estimate that option 2 would cost only 0.14 percent-0.18 percent of assets annually. Such large administrative cost savings imply a Pareto improvement - so long as choice is not constrained"too much".
|Date of creation:||30 Apr 1999|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Robert W. McLeod & D. K. Malhotra, 1994. "A Re-Examination Of The Effect Of 12b–1 Plans On Mutual Fund Expense Ratios," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 17(2), pages 231-240, 06.
- Ippolito, Richard A, 1992. "Consumer Reaction to Measures of Poor Quality: Evidence from the Mutual Fund Industry," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(1), pages 45-70, April.
- Livingston, Miles & O'Neal, Edward S, 1996. "Mutual Fund Brokerage Commissions," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 273-92, Summer.
- Carhart, Mark M, 1997. " On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
- Chordia, Tarun, 1996. "The structure of mutual fund charges," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 3-39, May.
- Shukla, Ravi K. & van Inwegen, Gregory B., 1995. "Do locals perform better than foreigners?: An analysis of UK and US mutual fund managers," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 241-254, August.
- Malhotra, D K & McLeod, Robert W, 1997. "An Empirical Analysis of Mutual Fund Expenses," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 175-90, Summer.
- Miles Livingston & Edward S. O'Neal, 1996. "Mutual Fund Brokerage Commissions," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 19(2), pages 273-292, 06.
- McLeod, Robert W & Malhotra, D K, 1994. "A Re-examination of the Effect of 12B-1 Plans on Mutual Fund Expense Ratios," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 17(2), pages 231-40, Summer.
- Dermine, Jean & Roller, Lars-Hendrik, 1992. "Economies of scale and scope in French mutual funds," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 83-93, March.
- D. K. Malhotra & Robert W. McLeod, 1997. "An Empirical Analysis Of Mutual Fund Expenses," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 175-190, 06.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2099. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.