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Recreational Value of the Baltic Sea: a Spatially Explicit Site Choice Model Accounting for Environmental Conditions


  • Mikołaj Czajkowski

    () (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)

  • Marianne Zandersen

    (Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University)

  • Uzma Aslam

    (Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University; Iqra University Islamabad Campus)

  • Ioannis Angelidis

    (Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University)

  • Thomas Becker

    (Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University)

  • Wiktor Budziński

    (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)

  • Katarzyna Zagórska

    (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)


The Baltic Sea plays a significant role for recreational use in the nine littoral countries with more than 70% of the population visiting the coast, representing some 80 million recreation visits annually. Understanding the values associated with coastal recreation and the potential welfare changes of improving the state of the Baltic Sea is important for managing the marine environment. We estimate a spatially explicit travel cost model of coastal site recreation to the Baltic Sea to assess the welfare of accessing individual sites, identify recreational hotspots and simulate the welfare changes resulting from improving environmental and infrastructure conditions. The total benefits associated with the Baltic Sea based recreation amount to 11.4 billion EUR per year with significant variation across sites. Improving water quality and infrastructure boost the recreational value by nearly 9 billion EUR, almost doubling the recreational benefits compared to current conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • Mikołaj Czajkowski & Marianne Zandersen & Uzma Aslam & Ioannis Angelidis & Thomas Becker & Wiktor Budziński & Katarzyna Zagórska, 2018. "Recreational Value of the Baltic Sea: a Spatially Explicit Site Choice Model Accounting for Environmental Conditions," Working Papers 2018-11, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
  • Handle: RePEc:war:wpaper:2018-11

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mikołaj Czajkowski & Wiktor Budziński & Danny Campbell & Marek Giergiczny & Nick Hanley, 2017. "Spatial Heterogeneity of Willingness to Pay for Forest Management," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 68(3), pages 705-727, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zawojska, Ewa & Bartczak, Anna & Czajkowski, Mikołaj, 2019. "Disentangling the effects of policy and payment consequentiality and risk attitudes on stated preferences," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 63-84.

    More about this item


    Recreational benefits; Site choice; Random Utility Model; Baltic Sea; Blue Flag;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • Q26 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
    • Q51 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Valuation of Environmental Effects

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