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Les relations de dépendance dans le commerce international des fruits et légumes frais. Le cas des exportations du Chili vers l'Europe

Listed author(s):
  • Codron, J.M.
  • Aubert, M.
  • Bouhsina, Z.

In the fresh produce long distance international trade, market intermediaries are still a key actor while modern retailers have little backward integrated into the import activity. Difficulty to negotiate a price at the FOB level, three or four weeks before fresh produce are consumed, leads exporters to mostly sell on consignment, e.g. to entrust an intermediary (an importer) with the task of selling their products at the highest price as possible. Resulting contracts are short term contracts, most often embedded in a long term relationship, with a legal part very small or even absent. Our paper is a first step in the analysis of those commercial agreements governing transactions between Chile and Europe. Drawing on the transaction cost theory, it aims at identifying transactional factors influencing the choice of an agreement. Agreements are characterized by the type of dependency existing between exporters and importers : bilateral dependency, unilateral dependency of the exporter or of the importer, independency. Using a threshold of 20%, dependency of A on B is defined as soon as B's share of total product transacted by A is over 20%. An empirical test of the Williamson core prediction is realized by using data of a Chilean data base describing individual transactions between exporters and importers during the year 2006/2007. The test confirms the alignment of transaction attributes with agreements characteristics. ...French Abstract : Les intermédiaires sont encore très présents dans le commerce international longue distance des fruits et légumes frais, la grande distribution n'effectuant que très peu d'importation directe en provenance de pays tiers. La difficulté à négocier les prix avant l'embarquement des produits, c'est à dire trois ou quatre semaines avant qu'ils ne soient consommés, conduit les exportateurs à vendre en consignation, c'est à dire à confier leur marchandise à un intermédiaire (l'importateur) pour qu'elle soit vendue au mieux. Les contrats qui en résultent sont des contrats de court terme, inscrits le plus souvent dans une relation de long terme et ont une base légale extrêmement réduite voire totalement absente. Ce papier a pour objectif l'analyse de la diversité des contrats relationnels qui gouvernent la plupart des transactions entre le Chili et l'Europe. Les données disponibles sont celles de la base de données de l'Association des Exportateurs du Chili (ASOEX) qui décrit finement les transactions interindividuelles sur l'année 2006/2007. Elles sont utilisées pour faire un premier repérage des acteurs et des accords qui les unissent. Les accords sont ici caractérisés par le type de dépendance entre les deux parties de l'échange. Quatre types de dépendance sont définis sur la base d'un seuil de 20% des volumes échangés : dépendance bilatérale, dépendance unilatérale de l'exportateur ou de l'importateur et non dépendance. Un test de la proposition centrale de la Théorie des Coûts de Transaction est finalement proposé. Il confirme l'alignement des caractéristiques de l'accord sur celles de la transaction.

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Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 200906.

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Date of creation: 2009
Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:200906
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  1. Palay, Thomas M, 1985. "Avoiding Regulatory Constraints: Contracting Safeguards and the Role of Informal Agreements," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(1), pages 155-175, Spring.
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