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Gender, institutions and educational achievement: a cross-country comparison


  • Helena Marques

    () (Universitat de les Illes Balears)

  • Oscar Marcenaro-Gutiérrez

    () (Universitat de Málaga)

  • Luis Alejandro López-Agudo

    () (Universitat de Málaga)


An issue in the literature on educational production functions is the contribution of variables related to students’ lifestyles towards explaining the gender gap in terms of educational achievement. We intend to shed further light on this issue by means of empirical evidence based on international data from 22 countries. In order to carry out this research, we analyze the effect of a set of variables from different international surveys that allow the study of the potential country-level factors which could influence this gap. Our results show that it is essential to foster entrepreneurship attitudes among tertiary education students. On the contrary, until high school education years it could be counterproductive. It is also relevant to enhance girls’ self-confidence in business management abilities, as they show a higher average risk-aversion than boys and they are also more affected by a range of gender stereotypes.

Suggested Citation

  • Helena Marques & Oscar Marcenaro-Gutiérrez & Luis Alejandro López-Agudo, 2016. "Gender, institutions and educational achievement: a cross-country comparison," DEA Working Papers 78, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Departament d'Economía Aplicada.
  • Handle: RePEc:ubi:deawps:78

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Maria Lucia Stefani & Valerio Vacca, 2015. "Small Firms’ Credit Access in the Euro Area: Does Gender Matter?," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 165-201.
    2. Alison L. Booth & Patrick Nolen, 2015. "Can Risk-taking Preferences be Modified? Some Experimental Evidence," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 7-32.
    3. Anna Vignoles & Augustin De Coulon & Oscar Marcenaro-Gutierrez, 2011. "The value of basic skills in the British labour market," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 27-48, January.
    4. Alison L. Booth & Patrick Nolen, 2012. "Gender differences in risk behaviour: does nurture matter?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(558), pages 56-78, February.
    5. Elena Bardasi & Shwetlena Sabarwal & Katherine Terrell, 2011. "How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 417-441, November.
    6. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2015. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 202-238.
    7. Peter Dolton & Gerald Makepeace & Oscar Marcenaro-Gutierrez, 2005. "Career progression: Getting-on, getting-by and going nowhere," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 237-255.
    8. Alison L. Booth & Pamela Katic, 2013. "Cognitive Skills, Gender and Risk Preferences," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 89(284), pages 19-30, March.
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    More about this item


    gender; institutions; education; achievement; PISA;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • B54 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Current Heterodox Approaches - - - Feminist Economics

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