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Title: An encompassing model and test of the Evans-Jovanovic credit constraints hypothesis

Author

Listed:
  • Jean Bonnet

    (CREM, UMR CNRS 6211, UFR SEGGAT, University of Caen Normandie, France)

  • Robert Cressy

    (Birmingham Business School, UK)

Abstract

Using an unbalanced panel of some 36,500 French startup firms and 11,600 closures over the period 1994-2000 we test for a role of bank credit scoring in small business lending using an encompassing version (GEJ) of the seminal Evans-Jovanovic(1989) (EJ) model of credit constraints. In the GEJ model the bank’s estimate of the probabilty of individual company survival (business quality) is allowed to figure in the startup credit decision, alongside collateral. On the French data EJ is rejected in favour of GEJ. Thus we conclude with EJ that there is evidence of startup credit constraints via bank lending rules, but that this imperfection is ameliorated by the bank’s estimate of firm quality: better firms and entrepreneurs are more likely to get loans. Enrepreneurial human capital is also found (consistently with Cressy, 1996) to play a major role in the survival of startup businesses and hence in the chances of getting a loan. Consistent with other empirical work we also establish that startup loan refusal (an upper bound to rationing) affects only a small proportion (9%) of applicants. However, for those whose loan request is rejected, dynamics show that they have a permanently higher hazard of failure (by 50%-90%), relative to their funded counterparts. Credit constraints thus contribute to small business failure.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean Bonnet & Robert Cressy, 2016. "Title: An encompassing model and test of the Evans-Jovanovic credit constraints hypothesis," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 2016-01, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
  • Handle: RePEc:tut:cremwp:2016-01
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mata, Jose & Portugal, Pedro, 1994. "Life Duration of New Firms," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 227-245, September.
    2. Mata, Jose & Portugal, Pedro & Guimaraes, Paulo, 1995. "The survival of new plants: Start-up conditions and post-entry evolution," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 459-481, December.
    3. P. A. Geroski & José Mata & Pedro Portugal, 2010. "Founding conditions and the survival of new firms," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 510-529, May.
    4. Rafik Abdesselam & Jean Bonnet & Nicolas Le Pape, 2004. "An Explanation of the Life Span of New French Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 237-254, October.
    5. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    6. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    7. Pedro Portugal & José Mata, 2001. "The Survival of New Domestic and Foreign Owned Firms," Working Papers w200101, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
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    Cited by:

    1. Geurts, Karen & Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2016. "Firm creation and post-entry dynamics of de novo entrants," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 59-104.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; startups; credit constraints; survival; France; panel data; hazard rate;

    JEL classification:

    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • G33 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Bankruptcy; Liquidation

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