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Stochastic Macro-equilibrium and A Microfoundation for the Keynesian Economics

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  • Hiroshi Yoshikawa

    (Faculty of Ecocnomics, University of Tokyo)

Abstract

In place of the standard search equilibrium, this paper presents an alternative concept of stochastic macro-equilibrium based on the principle of statistical physics. This concept of equilibrium is motivated by unspecifiable differences of economic agents and the presence of all kinds of micro shocks in the macroeconomy. Our model mimics the empirically observed distribution of labor productivity. The distribution of productivity resulting from the matchings of workers and firms depends crucially on aggregate demand. When aggregate demand rises, more workers are employed by firms with higher productivity while at the same time, the unemployment rate declines. The effect of the reservation wage on unemployment also depends on aggregate demand. The model provides a micro-foundation for Keynes' principle of effective demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 2011. "Stochastic Macro-equilibrium and A Microfoundation for the Keynesian Economics," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-827, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  • Handle: RePEc:tky:fseres:2011cf827
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Hiroshi Yoshikawa, 2003. "The Role of Demand in Macroeconomics," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 54(1), pages 1-27.
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    5. Foley Duncan K., 1994. "A Statistical Equilibrium Theory of Markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 321-345, April.
    6. Diamond, Peter A, 1982. "Aggregate Demand Management in Search Equilibrium," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(5), pages 881-894, October.
    7. H. S. Houthakker, 1955. "The Pareto Distribution and the Cobb-Douglas Production Function in Activity Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 27-31.
    8. Robert Shimer, 2005. "The Cyclical Behavior of Equilibrium Unemployment and Vacancies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 25-49, March.
    9. Fabien Postel-Vinay & Jean-Marc Robin, 2002. "Equilibrium Wage Dispersion with Worker and Employer Heterogeneity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(6), pages 2295-2350, November.
    10. Mankiw, N Gregory, 1989. "Real Business Cycles: A New Keynesian Perspective," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 79-90, Summer.
    11. Alan P. Kirman, 1992. "Whom or What Does the Representative Individual Represent?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(2), pages 117-136, Spring.
    12. Hideaki Aoyama & Hiroshi Yoshikawa & Hiroshi Iyetomi & Yoshi Fujiwara, 2010. "Productivity dispersion: facts, theory, and implications," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 5(1), pages 27-54, June.
    13. Aoki,Masanao & Yoshikawa,Hiroshi, 2007. "Reconstructing Macroeconomics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521831062.
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