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Region-Specific versus Country-specific Poverty Lines in Analysis of Poverty

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Abstract

The standard practice in most OECD countries is to measure and evaluate poverty on the basis of a poverty line defined as a specific proportion of the median equivalent income within a country. However, this approach disregards regional differences in prices and needs within a country and may, therefore, provide an incomplete and even an incorrect picture of the extent as well as the geographical and demographical composition of the poor. To account for differences in prices and needs, this paper introduces an alternative method of measuring poverty based on a set of region-specific poverty lines. Applying Norwegian household register data for 2001 we find that the overall extent of poverty is only slightly affected by the change in definition of poverty line. However, the geographical as well as the demographical composition of poverty are shown to depend heavily on whether the method of measuring poverty relies on region-specific or country-specific thresholds. As expected, the results demonstrate that the analysis of poverty based on country-specific thresholds produces downward biased poverty rates in urban areas and upward biased poverty rates in rural areas. Moreover, when region-specific poverty thresholds form the basis of the poverty analysis, we find that the poverty rates among young singles and non-western immigrants are significantly higher than what is suggested by previous empirical evidence based on a joint country-specific poverty line.

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  • Magne Mogstad & Audun Langørgen & Rolf Aaberge, 2005. "Region-Specific versus Country-specific Poverty Lines in Analysis of Poverty," Discussion Papers 408, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:408
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    1. Taryn Ann Galloway & Rolf Aaberge, 2005. "Assimilation effects on poverty among immigrants in Norway," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 691-718, November.
    2. Magne Mogstad & Audun Langørgen & Rolf Aaberge, 2007. "Region-specific versus country-specific poverty lines in analysis of poverty," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 5(1), pages 115-122, April.
    3. Quentin Wodon, 1999. "Regional poverty lines, poverty profiles, and targeting," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(12), pages 809-812.
    4. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al, 1993. "Poverty, Inequality, and Family Living Standards Impacts across Seven Nations: The Effect of Noncash Subsidies for Health, Education and Housing," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 39(3), pages 229-256, September.
    5. Sen, Amartya, 1979. " Issues in the Measurement of Poverty," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 81(2), pages 285-307.
    6. Roemer, J.E., 1992. "A Pragmatic Theory of Responsibility for the Egalitarian Planner," Papers 391, California Davis - Institute of Governmental Affairs.
    7. John E. Roemer, 2002. "Equality of opportunity: A progress report," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 19(2), pages 455-471.
    8. van Praag, Bernard M S & Hagenaars, Aldi J M & van Weeren, Hans, 1982. "Poverty in Europe," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 28(3), pages 345-359, September.
    9. Ravallion, M., 1998. "Poverty Lines in Theory and Practice," Papers 133, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
    10. Buhmann, Brigitte, et al, 1988. "Equivalence Scales, Well-Being, Inequality, and Poverty: Sensitivity Estimates across Ten Countries Using the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Database," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 34(2), pages 115-142, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Uche Ozughalu, 2016. "Relationship Between Household Food Poverty and Vulnerability to Food Poverty: Evidence from Nigeria," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 125(2), pages 567-587, January.
    2. Magne Mogstad & Audun Langørgen & Rolf Aaberge, 2007. "Region-specific versus country-specific poverty lines in analysis of poverty," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 5(1), pages 115-122, April.
    3. Dimri, Aditi & Maniquet, François, 2017. "Poverty measurement (in India): Defining group-specific poverty lines or taking preferences into account?," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1143, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    4. Dimri, Aditi & Maniquet, François, 2017. "Poverty measurement (in India): Defining group-specific poverty lines or taking preferences into account?," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 352, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    5. Aaberge, Rolf & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne & Østensen, Marit, 2008. "The Impact of Local Public Services and Geographical Cost of Living Differences on Poverty Estimates," IZA Discussion Papers 3686, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Uche M. Ozughalu & Fidelis O. Ogwumike, 2013. "Vulnerability to Food Poverty in Nigeria," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(3), pages 243-255, September.
    7. Martina Celidoni, 2015. "Decomposing Vulnerability to Poverty," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 61(1), pages 59-74, March.
    8. Andrea Brandolini, 2006. "Measurement of Income Distribution in Supranational Entities: The Case of the European Union," LIS Working papers 452, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    9. Uche M. Ozughalu, 2016. "Relationship Between Household Food Poverty and Vulnerability to Food Poverty: Evidence from Nigeria," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 125(2), pages 567-587, January.
    10. Magne Mogstad, 2007. "Measuring Income Inequality under Restricted Interpersonal Comparability," Discussion Papers 498, Statistics Norway, Research Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Measurement of poverty; poverty line; geographical and demographical poverty profile;

    JEL classification:

    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

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