Indicators for Complex Innovation Systems
Innovation systems are complex systems that can exhibit scaling and emergent properties. Predictable and measurable scaling correlations exist between measures commonly used to characterize innovation systems and national economies. This paper examines scaling relationships between GERD & GDP and between GDP & population and uses them to construct scale-independent indicators of the European and Canadian innovation systems. It discusses the theory and practice of building scale- independent indicators and scale-independent models. The theory is based on knowledge gathered from the study of complex systems. The practice is illustrated using OECD and Statistics Canada data commonly used to construct conventional indicators.
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- H. E. Stanley & V. Plerou, 2001. "Scaling and universality in economics: empirical results and theoretical interpretation," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(6), pages 563-567.
- Barabási, Albert-László & Ravasz, Erzsébet & Vicsek, Tamás, 2001. "Deterministic scale-free networks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 299(3), pages 559-564.
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