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Price-Setting Behaviour in Switzerland Evidence from CPI Micro Data

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  • Daniel Kaufmann

Abstract

This paper investigates price-setting behaviour of firms based on the individual price quotes underlying the Swiss consumer price index. The data set covers the years from 1993 to 2005. Six main findings emerge from the analysis. (i) Prices are sticky; the median duration amounts to 4.6 quarters. (ii) Price-setting behaviour is heterogeneous across sectors and outlet characteristics. (iii) Price changes are sizeable; the median absolute size amounts to 9.4%. (iv) There is no indication of general downward price stickiness; even in the case of positive inflation, 41.3% of all price adjustments are decreases and the distributions of price changes do not show substantial asymmetries. (v) Firms respond to expected cost shocks at the date of their occurrence; VAT rate changes do not lead to more price adjustments before they take effect. (vi) There is some evidence that firms adjust their behaviour according to the state of the economy; in particular, firms facing higher rates of inflation adjust prices more frequently.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniel Kaufmann, 2008. "Price-Setting Behaviour in Switzerland Evidence from CPI Micro Data," Working Papers 2008-15, Swiss National Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:snb:snbwpa:2008-15
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    Cited by:

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    3. Föllmi, Reto & Minsch, Rudolf & Schnell, Fabian, 2016. "What Determines Price Changes and the Distribution of Prices? Evidence from the Swiss CPI," Economics Working Paper Series 1610, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    4. Sarah Lein & Eva Koeberl, 2009. "Capacity utilisation, constraints and price adjustments under the microscope," KOF Working papers 09-239, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    5. Foellmi, Reto & Jaeggi, Adrian & Schnell, Fabian, 2020. "Currency appreciation, distance to border and price changes: Evidence from Swiss retail prices," Economics Working Paper Series 2007, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    6. Barbara Rudolf & Mathias Zurlinden, 2014. "A compact open economy DSGE model for Switzerland," Economic Studies 2014-08, Swiss National Bank.
    7. Simone Elmer & Thomas Maag, 2009. "The Persistence of Inflation in Switzerland," KOF Working papers 09-235, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
    8. Bo E. Honoré & Daniel Kaufmann & Sarah Lein, 2012. "Asymmetries in Price‐Setting Behavior: New Microeconometric Evidence from Switzerland," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44(s2), pages 211-236, December.
    9. Carlos Carvalho & Niels Arne Dam, 2009. "Estimating the cross-sectional distribution of price stickiness from aggregate data," Staff Reports 419, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    10. Stefan Leist, 2013. "Driving Forces of the Swiss Output Gap," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 149(IV), pages 493-531, December.
    11. Lein, Sarah M., 2010. "When do firms adjust prices? Evidence from micro panel data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(6), pages 696-715, September.
    12. Maritta Paloviita & Matti Viren, 2013. "How do individual forecasters change their views? An analysis with micro panel data," FindEcon Chapters: Forecasting Financial Markets and Economic Decision-Making, in: Władysław Milo & Piotr Wdowiński (ed.), Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Oeconomica nr 295/2013 - Financial Markets and Macroprudential Policy, edition 1, volume 127, chapter 5, pages 79-92, University of Lodz.
    13. Konstantins Benkovskis & Ludmila Fadejeva & Krista Kalnberzina, 2010. "Price Setting Behaviour in Latvia: Descriptive Evidence from CPI Microdata," Discussion Papers 2010/01, Latvijas Banka.
    14. Marco Huwiler & Daniel Kaufmann, 2013. "Combining disaggregate forecasts for inflation: The SNB's ARIMA model," Economic Studies 2013-07, Swiss National Bank.
    15. Yılmaz, Engin & Süslü, Bora, 2018. "The Determinants of Price Frequency in Turkey," MPRA Paper 86350, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Eva M. Köberl & Sarah M. Lein, 2011. "The NIRCU and the Phillips curve: an approach based on micro data," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 44(2), pages 673-694, May.
    17. Rita Fleer & Barbara Rudolf & Mathias Zurlinden, 2016. "Price change dispersion and time-varying pass-through to consumer prices," Working Papers 2016-17, Swiss National Bank.
    18. Stefan Leist & Klaus Neusser, 2010. "Measuring the Natural Output Level by DSGE Models: An Empirical Investigation for Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 146(I), pages 275-300, March.
    19. Andreas Bachmann, 2012. "Exchange rate pass-through to various price indices: empirical estimation using vector error correction models," Diskussionsschriften dp1205, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    20. Daniel Kaufmann, 2010. "The Timing of Price Changes and the Role of Heterogeneity," Working Papers 2010-02, Swiss National Bank.
    21. Daniel Kaufmann & Sarah M. Lein, 2012. "Is There a Swiss Price Puzzle?," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 148(I), pages 57-75, March.
    22. Barbara Rudolf & Pascal Seiler, 2022. "Price setting before and during the pandemic: evidence from Swiss consumer prices," Working Papers 2022-12, Swiss National Bank.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Price-setting; frequency of price changes; nominal price rigidity; time-dependent pricing; state-dependent pricing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • D40 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - General

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