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Managers, Workers, and Corporate Control

If management has high private benefits and owns a small equity stake, managers and workers are natural allies against a takeover threat. Two forces are at play. First, managers can transform employees into a "shark repellent" through long-term labor contracts and thereby reduce the firm's attractiveness to a raider. Second, employees can act as ``white squires''\ for the incumbent managers: to protect their high wages, they resist hostile takeovers, by refusing to sell their shares to the raider or by lobbying against the takeover. The model predicts that wages are inversely correlated with the incumbent's equity stake, and decline after a takeover

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Paper provided by Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy in its series CSEF Working Papers with number 75.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2001
Date of revision: 09 Jan 2004
Publication status: Published in The Journal of Finance, Vol. 60, No. 2, April 2005, pages 841-868
Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:75
Note: Winner of the 2005 Egon Zehnder International Prize for the best paper in the ECGI Finance Working Paper series, and nominated for the 2005 Brattle Prize.
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  1. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1999. "Is There a Discretion in Wage Setting? A Test Using Takeover Legislation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(3), pages 535-554, Autumn.
  2. Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers, 1987. "Breach of Trust in Hostile Takeovers," NBER Working Papers 2342, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Gordon, Lilli A. & Pound, John, 1990. "ESOPs and corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 525-555, October.
  4. Alan J. Auerbach, 1988. "Corporate Takeovers: Causes and Consequences," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number auer88-1, December.
  5. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2003. "Enjoying the Quiet Life? Corporate Governance and Managerial Preferences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(5), pages 1043-1075, October.
  6. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
  7. Chaplinsky, Susan & Niehaus, Greg, 1994. " The Role of ESOPs in Takeover Contests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(4), pages 1451-70, September.
  8. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 1998. "Why Higher Takeover Premia Protect Minority Shareholders," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 172-204, February.
  9. Rosett, Joshua G., 1990. "Do union wealth concessions explain takeover premiums? : The evidence on contract wages," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 263-282, September.
  10. Gary Gorton & Frank Schmid, 2000. "Class Struggle Inside the Firm: A Study of German Codetermination," NBER Working Papers 7945, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Betton, Sandra & Eckbo, B Espen, 2000. "Toeholds, Bid Jumps, and Expected Payoffs in Takeovers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 841-82.
  12. Sangsoo Park & Moon H. Song, 1995. "Employee Stock Ownership Plans, Firm Performance, and Monitoring by Outside Blockholders," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(4), Winter.
  13. Franks, Julian & Mayer, Colin, 1998. "Bank control, takeovers and corporate governance in Germany," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1385-1403, October.
  14. Garvey, Gerald T & Gaston, Noel, 1997. "A Theory of the Optimal Cost Barrier to Corporate Takeovers," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(3), pages 657-75, August.
  15. Beatty, Anne, 1995. "The cash flow and informational effects of employee stock ownership plans," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 211-240, June.
  16. Calvo, Guillermo A & Wellisz, Stanislaw, 1978. "Supervision, Loss of Control, and the Optimum Size of the Firm," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 943-52, October.
  17. Brian E. Becker, 1995. "Union rents as a source of takeover gains among target shareholders," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(1), pages 3-19, October.
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