Are two investors better than one?
This paper compares the optimal investor repayment contracts of a firm which has private information over its expost revenues when the finance can be provided by a single or by two investors (say a big shareholder and a group of small dispersed shareholders). Costly monitoring can be carried out by those investors who have a larger stake into the contract. When they are the only investors we use the Khalil-Parigi financial contract with non-contractible monitoring, in which the probabilities of cheating by the firm and monitoring by investors are mutual best responses. The contract is written by the firm knowing that this equilibrium will subsequently occur. With a second group of investors who have no monitoring rights, cheating and monitoring probabilities are chosen in a similar way. The small shareholders learn the results of any monitoring for free. A main result is that without commitment there is a negative correlation between repayments to the two investor groups: the contract uses the small group to smooth out the repayments of the firm optimally. This reduces the incentive for the firm to make false reports and mitigates the investor's incentive to monitor. A second result is that the two investor scenario is Pareto superior to the single investor model. A third result is that the possible extent of this smoothing depends on whether the investors have limited liability; it is found that in some circumstances investors should make repayments to the firm rather than receive them.
|Date of creation:||01 Oct 2001|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: I-80126 Napoli|
Phone: +39 081 - 675372
Fax: +39 081 - 675372
Web page: http://www.csef.it/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Douglas Gale & Martin Hellwig, 1985. "Incentive-Compatible Debt Contracts: The One-Period Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(4), pages 647-663.
- Lacker, J.M., 1989.
"Optimal Contracts Under Costly State Falsification,"
Purdue University Economics Working Papers
956, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
- Lacker, Jeffrey M & Weinberg, John A, 1989. "Optimal Contracts under Costly State Falsification," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(6), pages 1345-1363, December.
- Kofman, F. & Lawarree, J., 1990.
"Collusion in Hierarchical Agency,"
Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington
91-01, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Khalil, Fahad & Parigi, Bruno M, 1998. "Loan Size as a Commitment Device," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(1), pages 135-150, February.
- Martimort, David, 1996. "The multiprincipal nature of government," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 673-685, April.
- Roland Strausz, 1997.
"Delegation of Monitoring in a Principal-Agent Relationship,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 337-357.
- Strausz, R.G., 1995. "Delegation of Monitoring in a Principal-Agent Relationship," Discussion Paper 1995-60, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Robert M. Townsend, 1979.
"Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification,"
45, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Townsend, Robert M., 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 265-293, October.
- Khalil, Fahad & Lawarree, Jacques, 1995. "Collusive Auditors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 442-446, May.
- Bolton, Patrick & Scharfstein, David S, 1990. "A Theory of Predation Based on Agency Problems in Financial Contracting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 93-106, March.
- Stefan Krasa & Anne P. Villamil, 2000. "Optimal Contracts when Enforcement Is a Decision Variable," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(1), pages 119-134, January.
- Baron, David P & Besanko, David, 1992. "Information, Control, and Organizational Structure," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(2), pages 237-275, Summer.
- David P. Baron & David Besanko, 1984. "Regulation, Asymmetric Information, and Auditing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(4), pages 447-470, Winter.
- Dilip Mookherjee & Ivan Png, 1989. "Optimal Auditing, Insurance, and Redistribution," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(2), pages 399-415.
- Jean Tirole, 1985. "Hierarchies and Bureaucracies," Working papers 363, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Jean-Jacques Laffont & David Martimort, 1999.
"Separation of Regulators Against Collusive Behavior,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(2), pages 232-262, Summer.
- Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Martimort, David, 1994. "Separation of Regulators against Collusive Behavior," IDEI Working Papers 44, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Choe, Chongwoo, 1998.
"Contract design and costly verification games,"
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 327-340, February.
- Stephanie A. Dunne & Mark A. Loewenstein, 1995. "Costly Verification of Cost Performance and the Competition for Incentive Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(4), pages 690-703, Winter.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:71. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lia Ambrosio)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.