Road Rage: Imitative Learning Of Self-Destructive Behavior In An Agent-Based Simulation
A number of papers have studied imperfect imitative learning as a utility-increasing activity (e.g. Dawid, McCain 2000). Some studies of imitative learning have taken account of the tendency of people to imitate others who are "near" them in some sense (e.g. McCain 2000, Bala and Goyal). As Axtell observed, however, imitation may not be utility-increasing and may be motivated by quite different motives. Indeed, as McCain (1992) observed, imitation may lead to destructive and self-destructive behavior, as in road rage. Imitation may arise from a variety of motives, including simple conformism, a sense of common identity (McCain 1992), and fairness (Rabin) in the sense of reciprocity (Berg, Dickhaut, and McCabe). This multiplicity of motives lends itself to an "impulse-filtering" model (McCain, 1992) which would generate a probablistic choice function (Chen, Friedman, and Thisse). Whatever the motives, however, nearness (perhaps in social rather than physical space) would seem to be an important determinant of imitation.This paper reports simulations of a population of semi-rational agents playing a simple aggression-retaliation game in space. Their interactions are set in motion by random impulses to aggress. The decision to act on that impulse or not and to retaliate or not are determined by a series of probablistic filters, any one of which may suppress the impulse to aggress or to retaliate with a probability that depends on the recent experiences of the agent and her neighbors. The agents (victims of aggression) are situated at the cells of a cellular automaton and they can only perceive, and so be influenced by, the experiences of nearby neighbors.Simple as this model is, it may be used for policy assessment. To illustrate this, outcomes are compared with those of a modified game in which an external authority uses two kinds of strategies to restrain conflict. In one -- implemented by the Washington State Police in 1998 (Watson) -- the aggressors are penalized. In the alternative strategy, retaliators are penalized. Simulations are compared in order to project the relative effectiveness of the two penalty strategies.
|Date of creation:||05 Jul 2000|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: CEF 2000, Departament d'Economia i Empresa, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas, 25,27, 08005, Barcelona, Spain|
Fax: +34 93 542 17 46
Web page: http://enginy.upf.es/SCE/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hoffman, Elizabeth & McCabe, Kevin A & Smith, Vernon L, 1998. "Behavioral Foundations of Reciprocity: Experimental Economics and Evolutionary Psychology," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 335-352, July.
- Sushil Bikhchandani & David Hirshleifer & Ivo Welch, 1998. "Learning from the Behavior of Others: Conformity, Fads, and Informational Cascades," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(3), pages 151-170, Summer.
- Ernst Fehr & Georg Kirchsteiger & Arno Riedl, 1993.
"Does Fairness Prevent Market Clearing? An Experimental Investigation,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 108(2), pages 437-459.
- Georg Kirchsteiger & Ernst Fehr & Arno Riedl, 1993. "Does Fairness Prevent Market Clearing? An Experimental Investigation," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/5927, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Erev, Ido & Roth, Alvin E, 1998. "Predicting How People Play Games: Reinforcement Learning in Experimental Games with Unique, Mixed Strategy Equilibria," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 848-881, September.
- David K. Levine, 1998. "Modeling Altruism and Spitefulness in Experiment," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(3), pages 593-622, July.
- David K Levine, 1997. "Modeling Altruism and Spitefulness in Experiments," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2047, David K. Levine.
- Chen, Hsiao-Chi & Friedman, James W. & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1997. "Boundedly Rational Nash Equilibrium: A Probabilistic Choice Approach," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 32-54, January.
- Chen, H.-C. & Friedman, J. W. & Thisse, J.-F., "undated". "Boundedly rational Nash equilibrium: a probabilistic choice approach," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1248, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- CHEN, Hsiao-Ch. & FRIEDMAN, J.W. & THISSE, Jacques-Francois, 1996. "Boundedly Rational Nash Equilibrium: A Probabilistic Choice Approach," CORE Discussion Papers 1996044, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Rabin, Matthew, 1993. "Incorporating Fairness into Game Theory and Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1281-1302, December.
- Matthew Rabin., 1992. "Incorporating Fairness into Game Theory and Economics," Economics Working Papers 92-199, University of California at Berkeley.
- M. Rabin, 2001. "Incorporating Fairness into Game Theory and Economics," Levine's Working Paper Archive 511, David K. Levine.
- George J. Mailath, 1998. "Do People Play Nash Equilibrium? Lessons from Evolutionary Game Theory," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 1347-1374, September.
- George J. Mailath, "undated". ""Do People Play Nash Equilibrium? Lessons From Evolutionary Game Theory''," CARESS Working Papres 98-01, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
- Wu, Lihua & Wang, Yuyun, 1998. "An Introduction to Simulated Annealing Algorithms for the Computation of Economic Equilibrium," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 151-169, October.
- Sheffrin, S.M. & Triest, R.K., 1991. "Can Brute Deterrence Backfire? Perceptions and Attitudes in Taxpayer Compliance," Papers 373, California Davis - Institute of Governmental Affairs.
- Sugden, Robert, 1984. "Reciprocity: The Supply of Public Goods through Voluntary Contributions," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(376), pages 772-787, December.
- Goffe William L., 1996. "SIMANN: A Global Optimization Algorithm using Simulated Annealing," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(3), pages 1-9, October.
- Berg Joyce & Dickhaut John & McCabe Kevin, 1995. "Trust, Reciprocity, and Social History," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 122-142, July. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sce:scecf0:270. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.