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Getting Low Educated And Older People Into Work: Fiscal Policy In An Olg Model With Heterogeneous Abilities

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  • Freddy Heylen
  • Renaat Van de Kerckhove

Abstract

Rising pressure on the welfare state due to aging, forces governments in all OECD countries to develop effective policies to raise employment, in particular employment among older individuals and low educated individuals. Increased sensitivity to rising inequality in society has made the challenge for policy makers only greater. In this paper we evaluate alternative fiscal policy scenarios to face this challenge. We construct and use an overlapping generations model for an open economy where individuals differ not only by age, but also by innate ability and human capital. The model allows us to study effects on aggregate employment, per capita income and welfare, as well as effects for specific age and ability groups. We show that well-considered fiscal policy changes can significantly improve macroeconomic productive efficiency, without increasing intergenerational or intragenerational welfare inequality. Our results strongly prefer a reduction in the labor tax rate on older workers and on all low-wage earners, financed by an overall reduction in non-employment benefits. These results are to be seen as long-run effects for economies at potential output.

Suggested Citation

  • Freddy Heylen & Renaat Van de Kerckhove, 2018. "Getting Low Educated And Older People Into Work: Fiscal Policy In An Olg Model With Heterogeneous Abilities," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 18/946, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  • Handle: RePEc:rug:rugwps:18/946
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nicola Brandt & Jean-Marc Burniaux & Romain Duval, 2005. "Assessing the OECD Jobs Strategy: Past Developments and Reforms," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 429, OECD Publishing.
    2. Tine Dhont & Freddy Heylen, 2009. "Employment and growth in Europe and the US--the role of fiscal policy composition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(3), pages 538-565, July.
    3. Romain Duval, 2003. "The Retirement Effects of Old-Age Pension and Early Retirement Schemes in OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 370, OECD Publishing.
    4. Michael P. Devereux & Rachel Griffith & Alexander Klemm, 2002. "Corporate income tax reforms and international tax competition [‘Do domestic firms benefit from direct foreign investment? Evidence from Venezuela’]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 17(35), pages 449-495.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    employment by age; employment of low educated individuals; fiscal policy; heterogeneous ability; human capital; welfare inequality; overlapping generations (OLG);
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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