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Hard currency and financial development


  • Ilan Goldfajn

    () (Department of Economics PUC-Rio)

  • Roberto Rigobon



This paper investigates the relationship between hard currency and financial development. It creates four different series of hard currency based on different sets of data. The results of the paper suggest that indeed financial development and the hardness of currencies are highly correlated. However, we find that the relationship from currency hardness to financial development is fully captured by macro variables that represent overall macroeconomic stability. This suggest that having a hard currency is not a pre-condition for financial development but rather establishing a macroeconomic stable environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Ilan Goldfajn & Roberto Rigobon, 2000. "Hard currency and financial development," Textos para discussão 438, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
  • Handle: RePEc:rio:texdis:438

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrew Crockett & Chairman, 1999. "General discussion : exchange rates and financial fragility," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 411-422.
    2. Jonathan David Ostry & Anne Marie Gulde & Atish R. Ghosh & Holger C. Wolf, 1995. "Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?," IMF Working Papers 95/121, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "No Single Currency Regime is Right for All Countries or At All Times," NBER Working Papers 7338, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Alain Ize, 1998. "Dollarization of Financial Intermediation; Causes and Policy Implications," IMF Working Papers 98/28, International Monetary Fund.
    5. David Romer, 1993. "Openness and Inflation: Theory and Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(4), pages 869-903.
    6. Sebastian Edwards & Miguel A. Savastano, 1999. "Exchange Rates in Emerging Economies: What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Know?," NBER Working Papers 7228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Mishkin, Frederic S., 1998. "International Experiences With Different Monetary Policy Regimes," Seminar Papers 648, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    8. Barry Eichengreen & Ricardo Hausmann, 1999. "Exchange rates and financial fragility," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 329-368.
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    10. Merton H. Miller & Daniel Orr, 1966. "A Model of the Demand for Money by Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(3), pages 413-435.
    11. repec:idb:wpaper:402 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Ricardo Hausmann, 1999. "International Initiatives to Bring Stability to Financial Integration," Research Department Publications 4174, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    13. Norbert Funke & Mike Kennedy, 1997. "International Implications of European Economic and Monetary Union," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 174, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Honohan, Patrick & Shi, Anging, 2001. "Deposit dollarization and the financial sector in emerging economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2748, The World Bank.
    2. Fatih Ozatay & Guven Sak, 2003. "Banking Sector Fragility and Turkey’s 2000–01 Financial Crisis," Working Papers 0308, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.

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