IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Friedman Rule in the Laboratory


  • John Duffy

    (University of California, Irvine)

  • Daniela Puzzello

    (Indiana University)


We explore the celebrated Friedman rule for optimal monetary policy in the context of a laboratory economy based on the Lagos-Wright model. The rule that Friedman proposed can be shown to be optimal in a wide variety of different monetary models, including the Lagos-Wright model. However, we are not aware of any prior empirical evidence evaluating the welfare consequences of the Friedman rule. We explore two implementations of the Friedman rule in the laboratory. The first is based on a deflationary monetary policy where the money supply contracts to offset time discounting. The second implementation pays interest on money removing the private marginal cost from holding money. We explore the welfare consequences of these two theoretically equivalent implementations of the Friedman Rule and compare results with two other policy regimes, a constant money supply regime and another regime advocated by Friedman, where the supply of money grows at a constant k-percent rate. We find that, counter to theory, the Friedman rule is not welfare improving, performing no better than a constant money regime. By one welfare measure, we find that the k-percent money growth rate regime performs best.

Suggested Citation

  • John Duffy & Daniela Puzzello, 2019. "The Friedman Rule in the Laboratory," 2019 Meeting Papers 541, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed019:541

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hommes, Cars & Massaro, Domenico & Weber, Matthias, 2019. "Monetary policy under behavioral expectations: Theory and experiment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 193-212.
    2. Anbarci, Nejat & Dutu, Richard & Feltovich, Nick, 2015. "Inflation tax in the lab: a theoretical and experimental study of competitive search equilibrium with inflation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 17-33.
    3. Fenig, Guidon & Mileva, Mariya & Petersen, Luba, 2018. "Deflating asset price bubbles with leverage constraints and monetary policy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 1-27.
    4. Arifovic, Jasmina & Petersen, Luba, 2017. "Stabilizing expectations at the zero lower bound: Experimental evidence," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 21-43.
    5. Araujo, Luis & Camargo, Braz & Minetti, Raoul & Puzzello, Daniela, 2012. "The essentiality of money in environments with centralized trade," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(7), pages 612-621.
    6. Oleksiy Kryvtsov & Luba Petersen, 2013. "Expectations and Monetary Policy: Experimental Evidence," Staff Working Papers 13-44, Bank of Canada.
    7. Carl E. Walsh, 2010. "Monetary Theory and Policy, Third Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 3, volume 1, number 0262013770, September.
    8. Luba Petersen, 2015. "Do expectations and decisions respond to monetary policy?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(6), pages 972-1004, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Cornand, Camille & Hubert, Paul, 2020. "On the external validity of experimental inflation forecasts: A comparison with five categories of field expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 110(C).
    2. Camille Cornand & Frank Heinemann, 2018. "Experiments on macroeconomics: methods and applications," Post-Print halshs-01809937, HAL.
    3. Ryan Rholes & Luba Petersen, 2020. "Should central banks communicate uncertainty in their projections?," Discussion Papers dp20-01, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.
    4. Camille Cornand & Cheick Kader M’baye, 2018. "Band or point inflation targeting? An experimental approach," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 13(2), pages 283-309, July.
    5. Kryvtsov, Oleksiy & Petersen, Luba, 2021. "Central bank communication that works: Lessons from lab experiments," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 760-780.
    6. Camille Cornand & Frank Heinemann, 2018. "Experiments on macroeconomics: methods and applications," Working Papers 1810, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    7. De Grauwe, Paul & Ji, Yuemei, 2020. "Structural reforms, animal spirits, and monetary policies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    8. Fenig, Guidon & Mileva, Mariya & Petersen, Luba, 2018. "Deflating asset price bubbles with leverage constraints and monetary policy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 1-27.
    9. Cars Hommes & Domenico Massaro & Isabelle Salle, 2019. "Monetary And Fiscal Policy Design At The Zero Lower Bound: Evidence From The Lab," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 57(2), pages 1120-1140, April.
    10. Oleksiy Kryvtsov & Luba Petersen, 2019. "Central Bank Communication That Works: Lessons from Lab Experiments," Staff Working Papers 19-21, Bank of Canada.
    11. Anita Kopanyi-Peuker & Matthias Weber, 2018. "Experience Does not Eliminate Bubbles: Experimental Evidence," Working Papers on Finance 1822, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    12. Mikhail Anufriev & Aleksei Chernulich & Jan Tuinstra, 2020. "Asset Price Volatility and Investment Horizons: An Experimental Investigation," Working Papers 20200053, New York University Abu Dhabi, Department of Social Science, revised Aug 2020.
    13. Ahrens, Steffen & Lustenhouwer, Joep & Tettamanzi, Michele, 2018. "The stabilizing role of forward guidance: A macro experiment," BERG Working Paper Series 137, Bamberg University, Bamberg Economic Research Group.
    14. Mordecai Kurz & Maurizio Motolese & Giulia Piccillo & Howei Wu, 2015. "Monetary Policy with Diverse Private Expectations," Discussion Papers 15-004, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
    15. Joseph P. Byrne & Alexandros Kontonikas & Alberto Montagnoli, 2013. "International Evidence on the New Keynesian Phillips Curve Using Aggregate and Disaggregate Data," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(5), pages 913-932, August.
    16. Bonetto, Federico & Iacopetta, Maurizio, 2019. "A dynamic analysis of nash equilibria in search models with fiat money," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 207-224.
    17. Balcilar, Mehmet & Demirer, Riza & Gupta, Rangan & van Eyden, Reneé, 2017. "The impact of US policy uncertainty on the monetary effectiveness in the Euro area," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 1052-1064.
    18. A Piergallini & G Rodano, 2017. "A Simple Explanation of the Taylor Rule," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 22(1), pages 25-35, March.
    19. Leung, Charles Ka Yui & Shi, Song & Ho Tang, Edward Chi, 2013. "Commodity house prices," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 875-887.
    20. Israel, Karl-Friedrich, 2017. "In the long run we are all unemployed?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 67-81.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:red:sed019:541. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Zimmermann). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.