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Agricultural Policy Reforms and Structural Adjustments in Bangladesh

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  • Hasan, Mohammad Monirul

Abstract

This paper depicts the agricultural policy reforms and structural changes in Bangladesh from independence to the present times. Bangladesh agriculture has experienced major structural changes and achieved major successes over the last three and a half decades. Reforms began in the late 1970s and early 1980s by liberalizing the input markets. Both domestic and trade policy got a vibration of liberalization in the early 1990s. After the independence, Bangladesh followed a highly restrictive trade and exchange rate policy characterized by import regulations, high import tariffs, export taxes, persistent quantitative restrictions and an overvalued exchange rate. With a decade long half-hearted attempt towards trade liberalization, the democratic government in 1991 took courageous steps towards reforming the trade regime. Reforms instigated during this period included reducing and compressing tariffs, implementing and publishing a less complicated import tax structure, gradually eliminating non-tariff import restrictions, and promoting exports through income tax exemptions, bonded warehousing, and flexible exchange rate management. The recent Import-Export Policy 2009-2012 is a major step to the continuation of the liberalization of international trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Hasan, Mohammad Monirul, 2012. "Agricultural Policy Reforms and Structural Adjustments in Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 46540, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Jan 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:46540
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/46540/1/MPRA_paper_46540.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ahmed, Raisuddin, 1995. "Liberalization of agricultural input markets in Bangladesh: process, impact, and lessons," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 115-128, August.
    2. Raisuddin Ahmed, 1996. "Agricultural Market Reforms in South Asia," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 815-819.
    3. Hossain, Mahabub, 1988. "Credit for alleviation of rural poverty: the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh," Research reports 65, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Raisuddin Ahmed, 1995. "Liberalization of agricultural input markets in Bangladesh: process, impact, and lessons," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 12(2), pages 115-128, April.
    5. Ahmed, Nazneen & Bakht, Zaid & Dorosh, Paul A. & Shahabuddin, Quazi, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Bangladesh," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper Series 48481, World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agricultural policy; Structural Policy; Trade reform; Bangladesh; Policy reforms in Bangladesh; Bangladesh Economic reforms; policy changes; structural adjustment policy; Five year plans in Bangladesh; Fiscal reforms;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • E61 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • N10 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - General, International, or Comparative
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q10 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - General
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

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