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Kapitał społeczny ludzi starych na przykładzie mieszkańców miasta Białystok
[Social Capital of Old People on the Example of Bialystok Residents]


  • Klimczuk, Andrzej


"Social Capital of Old People on the Example of Bialystok Residents" is a book based on theoretical and empirical study, which presents an issue of diagnosing and using of old people social capital in the local and regional development processes. This issue is significant because of the threats and challenges associated with process of rapid ageing of Polish society at the beginning of 21st century. Publication, in particular, is an attempt to give answers to the following questions: what is the state of old people social capital in Bialystok, what transformations it undergoes and how is it differentiated? In this study old people are viewed as a social category, which is a set of people similar to each other in terms of socially significant features (such as age, possessed social roles and awareness of received social benefits), who are aware of these similarities and differences between each other. Moreover, it is assumed, that such persons exceeded the 60 years of age. It is also assumed that human, social and cultural capital is accumulated in the human resources. Social capital is recognized here broadly as a potential for collaboration embedded in interpersonal relationships and social norms that may benefit individuals, groups and societies. The book consists of three chapters. The first, which is the theoretical part of work, includes information about: old age as a stage of individual life and explanation of the old people notion. It discusses social theories of ageing, historical factors affecting on the social position of old people category, changes in their place in Polish society during the system transformation and in the early 21st century. It describes the possible consequences of increased life expectancy for democracy and capitalism - including the concepts of society for all ages, silver economy. It also features ageing population issue, as well as social policy towards the elderly and old age in Bialystok as the borderland city. A variety of social capital concepts were presented; the spheres of its influence on socio-economic development, its status in Poland and guidelines for strategic building of its resources. Selected information on the activity of old people in public, social and economic life as key features of their social capital was brought closer. Putting various theoretical positions, results of research and statistical data in order was aimed to link many dispersed sources considering that it is relevant to identify and develop seniors' social capital resources, as well as leveling the delay of Polish sociology research on the elderly. Fundamental theoretical perspective of publication is the concept of capital according to P. Bourdieu. However, the proposals of J.S. Coleman, R.D. Putnam, F. Fukuyama, A. Giddens, P. Sztompka and A. Sadowski were also used. The second chapter contains a methodological framework for the purposes of study. Research assumptions, method and course of implementation of studies were discussed. The study is based on the qualitative method and the application of in-depth interview techniques. It was considered that the personal contact with old people will be more accurate than other research techniques to identify the context in which they social capital resources can be found. It is important because the transfer of developed abroad activating solutions and interpretations of old people actions may be ineffective or have negative external effects in the Polish context. Moreover, in the Polish science literature attention is paid to scarcity of gerontological research in accordance with the interpretive paradigm. Study involved 26 respondents aged 60 to 89 years living in Bialystok associated with one of two different institutions: nursing home for the elderly and University of the Third Age. By comparing the persons on two extremes of social activity it was possible to see similarities and differences in their capital equipment, and also in achievements of the life positions in the class structure and resources aimed at successful ageing. The third chapter presents the empirical analysis of the research results. This part outlines the way in which old people think about their ancestors and contemporary people. It also shows factors according to changes in their social position in the city, social issues which they consider most important for old people, their opinions about leisure time, opportunities and barriers of economic activity and types of old people social capital depending on the institution with which they are associated. Approach to the perception and use of internal disparities of seniors were also discussed. The analysis additionally contains the evaluation of senior citizens image in the polish mass media. This publication does not contain a strict ending. It only identifies the main conclusions of the research and potential directions of future analysis. Above all, older people could improve their position not by demanding increases in social benefits from which major parts are often taken away by their family members, but by highlighting their human, social and cultural capital. It is necessary to create favorable conditions for social and professional life of old people and their cooperation with members of local communities. Important role in this regard is played by institutions implementing three tasks: stimulating senior citizens' desire to satisfy previously unrealized needs; creating relationships between them so that they can solve their own problems and work for the others; and providing legal, social and vocational guidance. Stimulating cooperation between existing public, commercial and non-governmental sector organizations may serve to achieve these goals. The dissemination of bottom-up techniques of social capital building and checklist of essential features of Age-friendly Cities may also be important.

Suggested Citation

  • Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2012. "Kapitał społeczny ludzi starych na przykładzie mieszkańców miasta Białystok
    [Social Capital of Old People on the Example of Bialystok Residents]
    ," MPRA Paper 39758, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:39758

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2010. "Ludzie starzy o swoim wizerunku w mediach
      [Older People About Their Media Image]
      ," MPRA Paper 61870, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2009. "W kreatywnym chaosie. O zróżnicowaniu starości na przykładzie prac społeczności
      [Inventive Chaos: Art Works of Community as an Example of Ageing Diversity]
      ," MPRA Paper 61878, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2009. "Wiekizm jako przeszkoda w budowie społeczeństwa mądrości
      [Ageism as an Obstacle in Construction of Wisdom Society]
      ," MPRA Paper 61879, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Plawgo, Bogusław & Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena & Citkowski, Mariusz & Juchnicka, Marta & Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2009. "Startery podlaskiej gospodarki. Analiza gospodarczych obszarów wzrostu i innowacji województwa podlaskiego: sektor rehabilitacji geriatrycznej
      [Podlasie Economy Starters. Analysis of Economic Growt
      ," MPRA Paper 69790, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2011. "Nierówności społeczne w kontekście badania kapitału społecznego ludzi starych. Przykład Domu Pomocy Społecznej i Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Białymstoku," MPRA Paper 61872, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2011. "Aktywność ekonomiczna ludzi starych w kontekście badań nad kapitałem społecznym na przykładzie mieszkańców Białegostoku
      [Economic Activity of Older People in the Context of Social Capital Research
      ," MPRA Paper 61880, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2010. "Bezpieczeństwo ludzi starych w kontekście badań nad kapitałem społecznym na przykładzie mieszkańców Białegostoku
      [The safety of elderly people in the context of social capital research - Bialystok
      ," MPRA Paper 61866, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Vincenzo SPIEZIA, 2002. "The greying population: A wasted human capital or just a social liability?," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 141(1-2), pages 71-113, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2013. "Budowa kapitału społecznego ludzi starych w kontekście polityk aktywizacji i aktywnego starzenia się
      [Building Older People Social Capital in the Context of Activation Policies and Active Ageing]
      ," MPRA Paper 61868, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena & Łagoda, Katarzyna Alicja, 2013. "Bariery i potencjały rozwoju outplacementu dla firm i pracowników
      [Barriers and potentials for the development of outplacement for firms and workers]
      ," MPRA Paper 63883, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2013. "Kierunki rozwoju uniwersytetów trzeciego wieku w Polsce
      [Development Directions of the Third Age Universities in Poland]
      ," MPRA Paper 84754, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Skarzyński, Michał, 2015. "ESP, czyli Jak wyjść z zakrętu w rozwoju firmy
      [ESP, or How to get out of the bend in the development of the company]
      ," MPRA Paper 63873, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2013. "Srebrna gospodarka w dokumentach strategicznych państwa
      [Silver Economy in the State Strategic Documents]
      ," MPRA Paper 61877, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena, 2017. "Determinanty zaufania konsumentów do firm z sektora rolno-spożywczego
      [The Determinants of Consumer Trust to the Agri-Food Industry]
      ," MPRA Paper 84755, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2015. "Modele wielosektorowej polityki społecznej wobec ludzi starych i starości w kontekście zmiany technologicznej
      [Models of multisectoral social policy towards older people and old age in the context
      ," MPRA Paper 69210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena, 2013. "Influence of Outplacement on the Protection of Workers Competencies," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 259-264.
    9. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Tomczyk, Łukasz, 2015. "Aging in the Social Space," EconStor Books, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, number 126216.
    10. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2014. "Raport Desk Research: Polityka społeczna wobec starości i osób starszych w mieście Białystok. Przegląd literatury i dokumentów strategicznych
      [Desk Research Report: Social Policy Towards Ageing and
      ," MPRA Paper 64241, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2015. "Regional Development in an Ageing Society: Overview of Selected Foreign and Polish Recommendations and Practices," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 21-50.
    12. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2012. "Historia Żydów na Podlasiu, czyli żyliśmy razem przez wieki: od zróżnicowania kulturowego do wielokulturowości. Oddolne techniki budowania kapitału społecznego
      [History of the Jews in the Podlasie
      ," MPRA Paper 69800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena, 2015. "Outplacement dla firm - bariery, potrzeby, czynniki rozwoju
      [Outplacement for Companies - Barriers, Needs, Growth Factors]
      ," MPRA Paper 63888, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Tarkowski, Alek & Mierzecka, Anna & Jasiewicz, Justyna & Filiciak, Mirosław & Kisilowska, Małgorzata & Bojanowska, Elżbieta, 2015. "Taksonomia funkcjonalnych kompetencji cyfrowych oraz metodologia pomiaru poziomu funkcjonalnych kompetencji cyfrowych osób z pokolenia 50+
      [Taxonomy of Functional Digital Skills and Methodology for
      ," MPRA Paper 68532, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Klimczuk, Andrzej & Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena, 2014. "Outplacement jako sposób ochrony kompetencji pracowników organizacji w warunkach zmiennego otoczenia
      [Outplacement as a Way of Protecting Organization Employees Competencies in a Changing Environme
      ," MPRA Paper 61885, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2012. "Supporting the Development of Gerontechnology as Part of Silver Economy Building," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 52-56.
    17. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2013. "Koncepcja solidarności pokoleń w krajowej polityce społecznej
      [Concept of Solidarity of Generations in the National Social Policy]
      ," MPRA Paper 58034, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Klimczuk, Andrzej, 2013. "Solidarność pokoleń w perspektywie strategicznej państwa
      [Solidarity between Generations in Strategic Perspective of State]
      ," MPRA Paper 61875, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Poleszczuk, Jan & Sztop-Rutkowska, Katarzyna & Kiszkiel, Łukasz & Klimczuk, Andrzej & Mejsak, Rafał Julian, 2013. "Diagnoza postaw mieszkańców Białegostoku w zakresie tolerancji
      [Diagnosis of attitudes in tolerance of Bialystok residents]
      ," MPRA Paper 50911, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    active ageing; age-friendly city; age discrimination; ageing; ageism; Bialystok (Podlasie Voivodship); border regions; borderland city; care elderly; cooperation; cultural capital; culture of poverty; development strategy; Discrimination in employment; economic activity; economic sociology; elderly; employment of persons in retirement age; employment of retirees; gerontechnology; gerontology; human capital; lifestyle; local development; lonely people; non-governmental organizations; nonprofit institutions; nursing home; old age; old age policy; old people; older people; older workers; pension age; peripheral regions; poverty; poverty enclave; professional activity; silver economy; silver market; social activity; social capital; social classes; social deviance; social diversity; social enclave; social exclusion; social inequality; social infrastructure; social marginalization; social policy; social security; social space; social welfare; sociology of ageing; sociology of borderland; sociology of the city; solidarity of generations; strategic management; strategic planning; third age; trust; university of the third age; welfare state;

    JEL classification:

    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • O2 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy
    • P25 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
    • H75 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Government: Health, Education, and Welfare
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics

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