Perspectives on Unemployment from a General Equilibrium Search Model
Australia has experienced a varied track record on unemployment. For the third quarter of the 20th century unemployment averaged 2.0 per cent. This is bracketed by average unemployment rates of 8.6 and 7.4 per cent in the second and fourth quarter centuries. Explanations of this phenomenon vary. In this paper we explore supply side explanations using a model developed by Ljungqvist and Sargent (LS). We adapt the LS model to the Australian tax and welfare system and calibrate it to the Australian economy. Two simulation experiments are considered. In the first we study the effect of varying the unemployment benefit on the level and composition of unemployment. In the second simulation we examine the effects of increasing the degree of turbulence experienced by the economy. In the former simulation we find that: raising benefits causes a rise in the duration of unemployment; unemployment rates rise; across voluntary and involuntary unemployment classes; the rise is relatively larger in the range of low skill workers whose job-search intensity falls the greatest. Job-search intensity of voluntarily unemployed workers does not change with benefits; and reservation wages of individuals with high skill levels are unaffected by unemployment benefits but the reservation wage low skilled workers increases with the unemployment benefit. In the second simulation increasing turbulence in the economic environment causes an increase in total unemployment and in involuntary unemployment. However, voluntary unemployment falls, because people alter their reservation wages and search intensities in response to increased turbulence; overall the average duration of unemployment rises. Finally, we replicate the LS finding that the adverse consequences of increased turbulence are larger in economies with more generous welfare systems. We interpret the findings reported above as suggesting that the LS model is a useful tool of analysis and in the final version of the paper we propose to calibrate the model to the changes in the level of unemployment benefits and the progressivity of the income tax schedule that occurred towards the end of the third quarter of the 20th century. Our objectives will be to quantify how much of the change in unemployment can be attributed to these factors and to quantify the extent to which higher unemployment is attributable to increased turbulence.
|Date of creation:||09 Aug 2001|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lars Ljungqvist & Thomas J. Sargent, 1995.
"The European unemployment dilemma,"
Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues
95-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Ljungqvist, Lars & Sargent, Thomas J., 1997. "The European Unemployment Dilemma," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 178, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Ljungqvist, Lars & Sargent, Thomas J., 1997. "The European Unemployment Dilemma," Working Paper Series 481, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Lars Ljungqvist & Thomas J. Sargent, 1996. "The European Unemployment Dilemma," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 36, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
- Olivier J. Blanchard & Lawrence H. Summers, 1986.
"Hysteresis and the European Unemployment Problem,"
in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1986, Volume 1, pages 15-90
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Olivier J. Blanchard & Lawrence H. Summers, 1986. "Hysteresis and the European Unemployment Problem," Working papers 427, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Olivier J. Blanchard & Lawrence H. Summers, 1986. "Hysteresis and the European Unemployment Problem," NBER Working Papers 1950, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter Gottschalk & Robert Moffitt, 1994. "The Growth of Earnings Instability in the U.S. Labor Market," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 25(2), pages 217-272.
- Samuel Bentolila & Giuseppe Bertola, 1990. "Firing Costs and Labour Demand: How Bad is Eurosclerosis?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(3), pages 381-402.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:3696. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.