The returns to scale effect in labour productivity growth
Labour productivity is defined as output per unit of labour input. Economists acknowledge that technical progress as well as growth in capital inputs increases labour productivity. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that changes in labour input alone could also impact labour productivity. Since this effect disappears for the constant returns to scale short-run production frontier, we call it the returns to scale effect. We decompose the growth in labour productivity into two components: 1) the joint effect of technical progress and capital input growth, and 2) the returns to scale effect. We propose theoretical measures for these two components and show that they coincide with the index number formulae consisting of prices and quantities of inputs and outputs. We then apply the results of our decomposition to U.S. industry data for 1987–2007. It is acknowledged that labour productivity in the services industries grows much more slowly than in the goods industries. We conclude that the returns to scale effect can explain a large part of the gap in labour productivity growth between the two industry groups.
|Date of creation:||27 May 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Barry P. Bosworth & Jack E. Triplett, 2007. "The Early 21st Century U.S. Productivity Expansion is Still in Services," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 14, pages 3-19, Spring.
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
- Dale W. Jorgenson & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2000.
"Raising the Speed Limit: U.S. Economic Growth in the Information Age,"
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 31(1), pages 125-236.
- Dale W. Jorgenson & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2000. "Raising the Speed Limit: US Economic Growth in the Information Age," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 261, OECD Publishing.
- W. Erwin Diewert & Catherine J. Morrison, 1985.
"Adjusting Output and Productivity Indexes for Changes in the Terms of Trade,"
NBER Working Papers
1564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diewart, W Erwin & Morrison, Catherine J, 1986. "Adjusting Output and Productivity Indexes for Changes in the Terms of Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(383), pages 659-79, September.
- C. Lovell, 2003. "The Decomposition of Malmquist Productivity Indexes," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 437-458, November.
- Nemoto, Jiro & Goto, Mika, 2005. "Productivity, efficiency, scale economies and technical change: A new decomposition analysis of TFP applied to the Japanese prefectures," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 617-634, December.
- Bert Balk, 2001. "Scale Efficiency and Productivity Change," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 159-183, May.
- Diewert, W. Erwin & Nakamura, Alice O., 2007. "The Measurement of Productivity for Nations," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 6, chapter 66 Elsevier.
- Jones, C.I., 2000.
"Sources of U.S. Economic Growth in a World of Ideas,"
99-29, United Nations World Employment Programme-.
- Charles I. Jones, 2002. "Sources of U.S. Economic Growth in a World of Ideas," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 220-239, March.
- Charles I. Jones, . "Sources of U.S. Economic Growth in a World of Ideas," Working Papers 98009, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker than Others?," NBER Working Papers 6564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1393-1414, November.
- Chambers,Robert G., 1988. "Applied Production Analysis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521314275, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:31152. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.