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General Equilibrium Model of Arbitrage Trade and Real Exchange Rate Persistence

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  • Berka, Martin

Abstract

Modelling of the physical characteristics of goods and geography can explain both the puzzling persistence and volatility in the deviations of the international relative prices and the real exchange rate (the PPP persistence puzzle). In a two-country, three-good general equilibrium model, arbitrage firms trade goods across borders using a linear transportation technology. Distance and product weights (their physical mass) determine the costs to arbitrage trade, while the differences in the endowments between countries create profitable trading opportunities. Tradability of goods is endogenous, in that only goods with a deviation from the law of one price in excess of their trade cost are traded. The adjustment of prices across borders is non-linear, with heterogeneous thresholds that depend positively on the weight of a product and distance { an empirical regularity. Aggregation of the law of one price deviations implies a smooth threshold non-linearity in the real exchange rate, justifying a reoccurring finding in the recent empirical literature. When stochastic endowments follow an AR(1) process calibrated to match the quarterly HP-filtered US and EU GDPs, and the aggregate trade costs consume 1.7% of the GDP, the half-life of deviation in the real exchange rate matches the persistence found in the data. A model with quadratic adjustment costs in the volume of trade is also capable of creating real exchange rate volatility, and so can explain the PPP puzzle entirely as a trade phenomenon.

Suggested Citation

  • Berka, Martin, 2005. "General Equilibrium Model of Arbitrage Trade and Real Exchange Rate Persistence," MPRA Paper 234, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:234
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. I Paya & D Peel, 2005. "Temporal aggregation of an ESTAR process," Working Papers 565938, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    2. Frédérique Bec & Anders Rahbek & Neil Shephard, 2008. "The ACR Model: A Multivariate Dynamic Mixture Autoregression," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(5), pages 583-618, October.
    3. Emekter, Riza & Jirasakuldech, Benjamas & Snaith, Sean M., 2009. "Nonlinear dynamics in foreign exchange excess returns: Tests of asymmetry," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 179-192, July.
    4. Ivan Paya & David A. Peel, 2004. "Nonlinear Ppp Under The Gold Standard," Working Papers. Serie AD 2004-24, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    5. Ivan Paya & David Peel, 2005. "The process followed by PPP data. On the properties of linearity tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(21), pages 2515-2522.
    6. Frédérique Bec & Mélika Ben Salem & Ronald MacDonald, 2006. "Real exchange rates and real interest rates : a nonlinear perspective," Recherches économiques de Louvain, De Boeck Université, vol. 72(2), pages 177-194.
    7. Frédérique Bec & Mélika Ben Salem & Marine Carrasco, 2010. "Detecting Mean Reversion in Real Exchange Rates from a Multiple Regime star Model," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 99-100, pages 395-427.
    8. David A. Peel & Ivan Paya, 2006. "Temporal aggregation of an ESTAR process: some implications for purchasing power parity adjustment," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 655-668.
    9. Ivan Paya & David A. Peel, 2011. "Systematic sampling of nonlinear models: Evidence on speed of adjustment in index futures markets," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2), pages 192-203, February.
    10. Bec, Frédérique & Zeng, Songlin, 2013. "Are Southeast Asian real exchange rates mean reverting?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 265-282.
    11. Pavlidis, Efthymios G. & Paya, Ivan & Peel, David A., 2011. "Real exchange rates and time-varying trade costs," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1157-1179, October.
    12. David A. Peel & Ioannis A. Venetis, 2005. "Smooth Transition Models and Arbitrage Consistency," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 72(3), pages 413-430, August.
    13. Soubarna Pal, 2011. "Productivity Differential and Bilateral Real Exchange Rate between India and US," Journal of Quantitative Economics, The Indian Econometric Society, vol. 9(1), pages 146-155.
    14. Pavlidis Efthymios G & Paya Ivan & Peel David A, 2010. "Specifying Smooth Transition Regression Models in the Presence of Conditional Heteroskedasticity of Unknown Form," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(3), pages 1-40, May.
    15. E Pavlidis & I Paya & D Peel, 2009. "Forecasting the Real Exchange Rate using a Long Span of Data. A Rematch: Linear vs Nonlinear," Working Papers 601190, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    16. Mario Cerrato & Hyunsok Kim & Ronald Macdonald, 2010. "Three-Regime Asymmetric STAR Modeling and Exchange Rate Reversion," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(7), pages 1447-1467, October.
    17. Mario Cerrato & Hyunsok Kim & Ronald MacDonald, 2008. "3-Regime symmetric STAR modeling and exchange rate reversion," Working Papers 2009_05, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow, revised Feb 2009.
    18. Balogun, Emmanuel Dele, 2009. "Determinants of West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)countries global export trade: do foreign reserves and independent exchange rates matter?," MPRA Paper 12929, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Xixin Cheng & Philip L. H. Yu & W. K. Li, 2009. "On a dynamic mixture GARCH model," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(3), pages 247-265.
    20. Ivan Paya & David A. Peel, 2005. "A New Analysis Of The Determinants Of The Real Dollar-Sterling Exchange Rate: 1871-1994," Working Papers. Serie AD 2005-16, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    21. Efthymios Pavlidis & Ivan Paya & David Peel, 2010. "Further empirical evidence on the consumption-real exchange rate anomaly," Working Papers 447022, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Arbitrage trade; real exchange rate; persistence; volatility;

    JEL classification:

    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other
    • F49 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Other

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