The size of the underground economy in Japan
This paper empirically analyzes the size of the underground economy in Japan. The results show that (i) the size of the underground GDP peaked in the early 1990s but has been declining since; (ii) the underground economy reached its peak in around 1992, approximating 25% of nominal GDP; and (iii) two laws (the Act for the Prevention of Wrongful Acts by Members of Organized Crime Groups and the Act Regulating the Adult Entertainment Business, etc.) successfully worked to reduce the size of the underground economy.
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