Women Empowerment in India
The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of women empowerment in India using various indicators like women’s household decision making power, financial autonomy, freedom of movement, political participation, acceptance of unequal gender role, exposure to media, access to education, experience of domestic violence etc based on data from different sources. The study reveals that women of India are relatively disempowered and they enjoy somewhat lower status than that of men in spite of many efforts undertaken by government. Gender gap exists regarding access to education and employment. Household decision making power and freedom of movement of women vary considerably with their age, education and employment status. It is found that acceptance of unequal gender norms by women are still prevailing in the society. More than half of the women believe wife beating to be justified for one reason or the other. Fewer women have final say on how to spend their earnings. Control over cash earnings increases with age, education and with place of residence. Women’s exposure to media is also less relative to men. Rural women are more prone to domestic violence than that of urban women. A large gender gap exists in political participation too. The study concludes by an observation that access to education and employment are only the enabling factors to empowerment, achievement towards the goal, however, depends largely on the attitude of the people towards gender equality.
|Date of creation:||06 Jan 2009|
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- Sudhir Anand and Amartya Sen, 1995. "Gender Inequality in Human Development: Theories and Measurement," Human Development Occasional Papers (1992-2007) HDOCPA-1995-01, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Bardhan, Kalpana & Klasen, Stephan, 1999.
"UNDP's Gender-Related Indices: A Critical Review,"
Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 985-1010, June.
- Kalpana Bardhan & Stephan Klasen, 1998. "UNDP's Gender-Related Indices: A Critical Review," Human Development Occasional Papers (1992-2007) HDOCPA-1998-03, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2001. "Women's Leadership and Policy Decisions: Evidence from a Nationwide Randomized Experiment in India," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-114, Boston University - Department of Economics. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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