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Working Paper 94 - Des inégalités de genre à l’indice de qualité de vie des femmes

  • Bérenger Bérenger
  • Audrey Chouchane

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    S’appuyant sur l’approche de Sen en termes de capabilités et sur une méthode d’agrégation issue de la théorie des ensembles flous, l’article tente de dépasser les principales critiques adressés aux indices ISDH et IPF du PNUD dans l’analyse des inégalités de genre. Le premier est un indice pur d’inégalités, fondé sur l’indice de Gini, et adresse les critiques liées au concept « d’inégalités » dans les indices du PNUD. Le second, l’indice sexospécifique de désavantage des femmes (ISDF) est indépendant du développement humain puisqu’il ne s’appuie que sur des ratios. De plus, il ne saisit que les inégalités à l’encontre des femmes alors que dans l’ISDH, les écarts de genre sont traités de manière symétrique. Le troisième, l’indice relatif de désavantage des femmes (IRDF) adresse la critique liée à l’inclusion du revenu dans les indices du PNUD. Il est décomposable en trois domaines (santé, éducation, participation) et exclut tout indicateur monétaire. Ces trois indices apportent des informations différentes pour l’analyse des inégalités de genre. Ils sont complétés par un quatrième indice, celui de la qualité de vie des femmes (QVF). Ce dernier indice est construit à partir d’indicateurs concernant uniquement les femmes et les enfants. Il est cependant fortement corrélé aux indices d’inégalités de genre.

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    Paper provided by African Development Bank in its series Working Paper Series with number 229.

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    Date of creation: 31 Jan 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:adb:adbwps:229
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    1. Morrisson, Christian & Jutting, Johannes P., 2005. "Women's discrimination in developing countries: A new data set for better policies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1065-1081, July.
    2. Edward Harvey & John Blakely & Lorne Tepperman, 1990. "Toward an index of gender equality," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 299-317, May.
    3. Bardhan, Kalpana & Klasen, Stephan, 1999. "UNDP's Gender-Related Indices: A Critical Review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 985-1010, June.
    4. Sudhir Anand and Amartya Sen, 1995. "Gender Inequality in Human Development: Theories and Measurement," Human Development Occasional Papers (1992-2007) HDOCPA-1995-01, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
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    6. Stephan Klasen, 2004. "Gender-Related Indicators of Well-Being," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 102, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    7. Gasper, D.R., 2004. "Human well-being : concepts and conceptualizations," ISS Working Papers - General Series 19148, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    8. Desai, Meghnad & Shah, Anup, 1988. "An Econometric Approach to the Measurement of Poverty," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(3), pages 505-22, September.
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    10. Abu-Ghaida, Dina & Klasen, Stephan, 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity," IZA Discussion Papers 1031, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Dijkstra, A.G., 2000. "A. larger pie through a fair share? : gender equality and economic performance," ISS Working Papers - General Series 19060, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    12. Javier Martinez Peinado & Gemma Cairo Cespedes, 2004. "Gender And Regional Inequality In Human Development: The Case Of Spain," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 37-64.
    13. Johannes P. Jütting & Christian Morrisson & Jeff Dayton-Johnson & Denis Drechsler, 2006. "Measuring Gender (In)equality: Introducing the Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (GID)," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 247, OECD Publishing.
    14. Jacques Charmes & Saskia Wieringa, 2003. "Measuring Women's Empowerment: An assessment of the Gender-related Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 419-435.
    15. Silber, Jacques, 1989. "Factor Components, Population Subgroups and the Computation of the Gini Index of Inequality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 107-15, February.
    16. Gasper, Des, 2004. "Human Well-being: Concepts and Conceptualizations," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    17. Tomson Ogwang, 2000. "Inter-country inequality in human development indicators," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(7), pages 443-446.
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