Monitoring Economic Vulnerability and Performance: Applications to the Philippines
The recent spate of banking and currency crises has underscored the need to develop early warning systems. These are based on economic indicators of vulnerability, which can be identified from models and theories of crises. First generation models focus on the inconsistency of macroeconomic policies and the exchange rate peg. Examples of economic indicators derived from this framework are the fiscal deficit, growth of money supply, current account balance and the level of foreign exchange reserves. Second generation models revolve around the possibility of self-fulfilling crises and multiple equilibria. Meanwhile, the 1997 East Asian financial crisis spawned research on third-generation models, which integrated balance sheets of banks and corporations in the framework of second-generation models. The next step is then to combine all the variables in a meaningful way that will allow the prediction of economic crises. There are two popular approaches: the probability model using limited dependent variables estimation and the signals approach of Kaminsky and Reinhart. Both these methodologies have their own advantages and disadvantages but their usefulness would be constrained by the availability and timeliness of high-frequency data.
|Date of creation:||2001|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: NEDA sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo St., Legaspi Village, Makati City,|
Web page: http://www.pids.gov.ph/
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- Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998.
"Leading Indicators of Currency Crises,"
IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
- Kaminsky, Graciela & Lizondo, Saul & Reinhart, Carmen M., 1997. "Leading indicators of currency crises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1852, The World Bank.
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- Obstfeld, Maurice, 1996. "Models of currency crises with self-fulfilling features," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1037-1047, April.
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- Obstfeld, Maurice, 1996. "Models of Currency Crises with Self-fulfilling Features," CEPR Discussion Papers 1315, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Paul Louis Ceriel Hilbers & Alfredo Mario Leone & Mahinder Singh Gill & Owen Evens, 2000. "Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness," IMF Occasional Papers 192, International Monetary Fund.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
- Graciela L. Kaminsky & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1996. "The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of-payments problems," International Finance Discussion Papers 544, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Reinhart, Carmen & Kaminsky, Graciela, 2000.
"Las crisis gemelas: las causas de los problemas bancarios y de balanza de pagos
[The twin crises: Te causes of banking and balance of payments problems]," MPRA Paper 13842, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Kaminsky, Graciela, 1999. "The twin crises: The causes of banking and balance of payments problems," MPRA Paper 14081, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Yap, Josef T., 1998. "Developing an Early Warning System for BOP and Financial Crises: The Case of the Philippines," Discussion Papers DP 1998-40, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
- AgÃ©nor,Pierre-Richard & Miller,Marcus & Vines,David & Weber,Axel (ed.), 1999. "The Asian Financial Crisis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521770804, January.
- Socorro Gochoco-Bautista, Maria, 2000. "Periods of Currency Pressure: Stylized Facts and Leading Indicators," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 125-158, January.
- Liliana Rojas-Suarez, 2001. "Rating Banks in Emerging Markets: What Credit Rating Agencies Should Learn from Financial Indicators," Working Paper Series WP01-6, Peterson Institute for International Economics. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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