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Policies for Inclusive Urbanisation in China

Author

Listed:
  • Vincent Koen

    (OECD)

  • Richard Herd

    (OECD)

  • Xiao Wang

    (OECD)

  • Thomas Chalaux

    (OECD)

Abstract

Urbanisation in China has long been held back by various restrictions on land and internal migration but has taken off since the 1990s, as these impediments started to be gradually relaxed. People have moved in large numbers to richer cities, where productivity is higher and has increased further thanks to agglomeration effects. In the process, the rural-urban income differential has narrowed. Urbanisation also entails costs, however, notably in the form of congestion, all the more so as public transport provision has not kept up. Demand for living space is set to continue to increase as living standards improve, putting pressure on land prices. This can be offset by relaxing the very stringent restrictions on the use of agricultural land for building. For migrants to better integrate in the cities where they work, their access and that of their families to education, health and other social services must continue to improve, in particular via further changes to the registration system, coupled with more market-based rules on land ownership and use. Comment favoriser une urbanisation plus inclusive en Chine Alors que l’urbanisation était depuis longtemps freinée en Chine par diverses restrictions appliquées au marché foncier et aux migrations internes, elle s’intensifie depuis que ces obstacles ont commencé à être progressivement levés dans les années 90. Les villes plus riches, caractérisées par une productivité élevée et en constante progression du fait des économies d’échelle générées par l’urbanisation, enregistrent un afflux massif de migrants. Parallèlement, l’écart de revenus entre zones rurales et urbaines s’est resserré. Néanmoins, l’urbanisation a aussi un coût, notamment illustré par les problèmes de congestion, aggravés par le développement insuffisant de l’offre de transports publics. La demande de surface habitable devrait rester orientée à la hausse sous l’effet de l’amélioration du niveau de vie, ce qui exercera une pression sur les prix des terrains. Cette pression peut être atténuée en assouplissant les restrictions très sévères appliquées à l’usage des terres agricoles à des fins de construction. Pour veiller à une meilleure intégration des migrants dans les villes où ils travaillent, il faut continuer à améliorer leur accès et celui de leurs familles à l’éducation, aux soins de santé et aux autres types de services sociaux, notamment en poursuivant la réforme du système d’enregistrement et en adoptant une réglementation plus axée sur le marché en ce qui concerne la propriété et l’utilisation des terres.

Suggested Citation

  • Vincent Koen & Richard Herd & Xiao Wang & Thomas Chalaux, 2013. "Policies for Inclusive Urbanisation in China," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1090, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1090-en
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k3xz6hc2z0x-en
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ecosys:v:41:y:2017:i:2:p:165-178 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:7:p:2116-:d:153696 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    agglomeration effects; agriculture; agriculture; China; Chine; cities; clivage urbain-rural; congestion; congestion; effets d’agglomération; housing; hukou; hukou; land; logement; migration; migration; pollution; pollution; public transport; scale economies; services sociaux; social services; transport public; urban-rural divide; urbanisation; urbanisation; villes; économies d'échelle;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H41 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Public Goods
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
    • H54 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Infrastructures
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • H77 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism
    • I39 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Other
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • K11 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Property Law
    • K39 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Other
    • N35 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • P21 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Planning, Coordination, and Reform
    • P25 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
    • P26 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Political Economy
    • P27 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Performance and Prospects
    • P28 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Natural Resources; Environment
    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R14 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Land Use Patterns
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • R28 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Government Policy
    • R31 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Housing Supply and Markets
    • R38 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Government Policy
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy
    • R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations
    • R58 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Regional Development Planning and Policy

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