The Built-in Flexibility of Income and Consumption Taxes in New Zealand
This paper provides estimates of individual and aggregate revenue elasticities of income and consumption taxes in New Zealand, based on the 2001 tax structure and expenditure patterns. Using analytical expressions for revenue elasticities at the individual and aggregate levels, together with a simulated income distribution, values for New Zealand were obtained. Results using equi-proportional income changes suggest that the aggregate income and consumption tax revenue elasticities are both fairly constant as mean income increases, at around 1.3 and 0.95 respectively. This latter estimate assumes that increases in disposable income are accompanied by approximately proportional increases in total expenditure. If there is a tendency for the savings proportion to increase as disposable income increases, a somewhat lower total consumption tax revenue elasticity, of around 0.9, is obtained for 2001 income levels. However, non-equiproportional income changes are more realistic. Allowing for regression towards the geometric mean income reduces these elasticities, giving an elasticity for income and consumption taxes combined that is only slightly above unity. Examination of the tax-share weighted expenditure elasticities for various goods also revealed that, despite the adoption of a broad based GST at a uniform rate in New Zealand, the persistence of various excises has an important effect on the overall consumption tax revenue elasticity, especially for individuals at relatively low income levels.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2003|
|Date of revision:|
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- Creedy, J. & Gemmell, N., 2001.
"The Revenue Responsiveness of Income and Consumption Taxes in the UK,"
Department of Economics - Working Papers Series
814, The University of Melbourne.
- John Creedy & Norman Gemmell, 2003. "The Revenue Responsiveness of Income and Consumption Taxes in the UK," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 71(6), pages 641-658, December.
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- Alex Bakker & John Creedy, 1999. "Macroeconomic variables and income inequality in New Zealand: An exploration using conditional mixture distributions," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 59-79.
- Paul Johnson & Peter Lambert, 1989. "Measuring the responsiveness of income tax revenue to income growth: a review and some UK values," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1-18, November.
- John Creedy & Norman Gemmell, 2001. "The Revenue Elasticity of Taxes in the UK," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2001n11, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
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