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Demand for higher education programs: the impact of the Bologna process

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The Bologna process aims at creating a European Higher Education Area where intercountry mobility of students and sta?, as well as workers holding a degree, is facilitated. While several aspects of the process deserve wide public support, the reduction of the length of the first cycle of studies to three years, in several continental European countries where it used to last for four or five years, is less consensual. The paper checks the extent of public confidence in the restructuring of higher education currently underway, by looking at its implications on the demand for academic programs. It exploits the fact that some programs have restructured under the Bologna process and others have not, in Portugal. Precise quantification of the demand for each academic program is facilitated by the rules of access to higher education, in a nation-wide competition, where candidates must list up to six preferences of institution and program. We use regression analysis applied to count data, estimating negative binomial models. Results indicate that the programs that restructured to follow the Bologna principles were subject to higher demand than comparable programs that did not restructure, as if Bologna were understood as a quality stamp. This positive impact was reinforced if the institution was a leader, i.e. the single one in the country that restructured the program. Still an additional increase in demand was experienced by large programs that restructured to offer an integrated master degree, thus conforming to Bologna principles while not reducing the program duration.

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  • Ana Rute Cardoso & Miguel Portela & Fernando Alexandre & Carla Sá, 2007. "Demand for higher education programs: the impact of the Bologna process," NIPE Working Papers 4/2007, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
  • Handle: RePEc:nip:nipewp:4/2007
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    1. Mizrahi, Shlomo & Mehrez, Abraham, 2002. "Managing quality in higher education systems via minimal quality requirements: signaling and control," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 53-62, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Volker Meier & Ioana Cosmina Schiopu, 2015. "Why Academic Quality in Higher Education Declines," CESifo Working Paper Series 5480, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Hahm, Sabrina & Kluve, Jochen, 2016. "Effects of the Bologna Reform on Educational Outcomes: Micro Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 10201, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Giuseppe Rose, 2009. "Higher education reforms and signaling equilibria," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 75-90.
    4. Giorgio Di Pietro, 2012. "The Bologna Process and widening participation in university education: new evidence from Italy," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 357-374, August.
    5. Cappellari, Lorenzo & Lucifora, Claudio, 2009. "The "Bologna Process" and college enrollment decisions," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 638-647, December.
    6. Bernhard Enzi & Benedikt Siegler, 2016. "The Impact of the Bologna Reform on Student Outcomes Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Regional Supply of Bachelor Programs in Germany," ifo Working Paper Series 225, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    7. Bosio, Giulio & Leonardi, Marco, 2011. "The Impact of Bologna Process on the Graduate Labour Market: Demand and Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 5789, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Fernando Alexandre & Miguel Portela & Carla Sá, 2008. "Admission conditions and graduates' employability," NIPE Working Papers 16/2008, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
    9. Siegler, Benedikt & Enzi, Bernhard, 2016. "The Impact of the Bologna Reform on Student Outcomes," Discussion Papers in Economics 29635, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    10. Hahm, Sabrina & Kluve, Jochen, 2017. "Better with Bologna? Tertiary education reform and student outcomes," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168053, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    11. Lerche, Katharina, 2016. "The effect of the Bologna Process on the duration of studies," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 287, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    12. Agnieszka Sitko-Lutek & Monika Jakubiak, 2014. "Managerial Competencies in Knowledge Context: Comparative Analysis of Poland and United Kingdom," International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning, International School for Social and Business Studies, Celje, Slovenia, vol. 3(2), pages 151-164.
    13. Calogero Guccio & Marco Ferdinando Martorana & Luisa Monaco, 2016. "Evaluating the impact of the Bologna Process on the efficiency convergence of Italian universities: a non-parametric frontier approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 275-298, June.
    14. Frederick van der Ploeg & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2007. "Higher Education Reform and the Renewed Lisbon Strategy: Role of Member States and the European Commission," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/33, European University Institute.
    15. Carlos Vieira & Isabel Vieira, 2011. "Determinants and projections of demand for higher education in Portugal," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2011_15, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
    16. Hahm, Sabrina & Kluve, Jochen, 2016. "Effects of the Bologna Reform on educational outcomes: Micro evidence from Germany," Ruhr Economic Papers 639, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    17. Bernhard Enzi & Benedikt Siegler, 2016. "The Impact of the Bologna Reform on Student Outcomes – Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Regional Supply of Bachelor Programs in Germany," Working Papers 165, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    18. Guccio, Calogero & Martorana, Marco & Monaco, Luisa, 2013. "Evaluating italian university teaching efficiency convergence: a non-parametric frontier approach," MPRA Paper 56673, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Fabio Berton & Daniele Bondonio, 2014. "The Impact of Degree Duration on Higher Education Participation: Evidence from a Large-Scale Natural Experiment," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 137, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    education policy; European Higher Education Area; economic; social and cultural integration; count data.;

    JEL classification:

    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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