Exchange Rate Pass-Through in ASEAN: Identifying Supply-Side Constraints to Export Performance in Ecuador: An Exercise with Investment Climate Survey Data
We apply a Heckman selection model to the 2003-Investment Climate Survey (ICS) to investigate supply-side constraints to export performance at the firm level in Ecuador. To correct for the non-random truncation problem, we use the Heckman selection model to estimate the probability of exporting (export propensity) and the share of total sales that are exported (export intensity) by Ecuadorian firms. A baseline model with 12 independent variables divided into three categories – idiosyncratic characteristics, technology, and business environment – is developed. Three other models are developed with the addition of variables related to trade integration, business environment, and infrastructure. Results corroborate with the hypothesis implicit in the Heckman model, which considers both decisions made by a firm – whether to export, and how much of its sales to export – to be interdependent. In the Ecuadorian case, three important results for the firm’s export performance are found: technology matters; infrastructure does not; and trade orientation is significant, with specialized firms tending to have smaller export intensity when having the countries of the Andean Community as their main trade partners, the opposite happening if the U.S. is their main trade partner. We find a robust and stable relationship for export propensity and intensity with size, import of inputs, labor regulations, in-house R&D, quality certification, web-use, and foreign ownership. Also, capacity utilization and trade with the U.S. positively affect export intensity, while trade within the Andean Community has the opposite effect in our outcome variable. No significant relationship was found for the infrastructure variables.World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4179, March 2007.
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- Andreu Mas-Colell, 2003.
"The European Space of Higher Education: Incentive and Governance Issues,"
Rivista di Politica Economica,
SIPI Spa, vol. 93(6), pages 9-27, November-.
- Andreu Mas-Colell, 2004. "The European Space of Higher Education: Incentive and Governance Issues," 'Angelo Costa' Lectures Serie, SIPI Spa, issue Lect. V.
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