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PACE Survey: Background, Applications, and Data Quality Issues

  • Martin T. Ross
  • Michael P. Gallaher
  • Brian C. Murray
  • Wanda W. Throneburg
  • Arik Levinson

The only comprehensive source of the actual costs of environmental abatement activities in the United States has been the Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey. This survey collects facility-level data on capital and operating costs of pollution abatement, focusing on facilities in the manufacturing, mining, and electric utility industries. The cost information reflects most environmentally related expenditures, including compliance with local, state, and federal regulations, and voluntary or market-driven pollution abatement activities. Between 1973 and 1994 (but excluding 1987), the Bureau of Census conducted the PACE survey annually. After a 5-year lapse, it was reinstated in 2000, following a redesign, and collected data on 1999 expenditures. Subsequent to the 1999 PACE survey, no further surveys have been conducted. This report discusses the PACE survey and issues surrounding it, and offers suggestions for how to address some of these issues. This report is part of a larger project under contract with US EPA to redesign the PACE Survey with the goal of developing a survey that will be implemented on an annual basis.

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File URL: http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eed.nsf/WPNumber/2004-09/$File/2004-09.PDF
File Function: First version, 2004
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Paper provided by National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its series NCEE Working Paper Series with number 200409.

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Length: 85 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2004
Date of revision: Jul 2004
Handle: RePEc:nev:wpaper:wp200409
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  1. Wayne B. Gray & Ronald J. Shadbegian, 2002. "When Do Firms Shift Production Across States to Avoid Environmental Regulation?," NBER Working Papers 8705, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Arik Levinson, 1999. "An Industry-Adjusted Index of State Environmental Compliance Costs," NBER Working Papers 7297, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Ronald Shadbegian & Wayne Gray, 2003. "Pollution Abatement Expenditures and Plant-Level Productivity: A Production Function Approach," Working Papers 03-16, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  4. Wayne B Gray & Ronald J Shadbegian, 1994. "Pollution Abatement Costs, Regulation And Plant-Level Productivity," Working Papers 94-14, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  5. Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson & Jenny Minier, 2003. "Footlose and Pollution Free," Working Papers gueconwpa~03-03-04, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
  6. Randy A Becker & Vernon Henderson, 1999. "Costs of Air Quality Regulation," Working Papers 99-9, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    • Randy A. Becker & J. Vernon Henderson, 2001. "Costs of Air Quality Regulation," NBER Chapters, in: Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy, pages 159-186 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Wolfgang Keller & Arik Levinson, 2002. "Pollution Abatement Costs and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to U.S. States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 691-703, November.
  8. Smith, V Kerry & Walsh, Randy, 2000. " Do Painless Environmental Policies Exist?," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 73-94, July.
  9. Nestor, Deborah Vaughn & Pasurka, Carl A, Jr, 1995. "Environment-Economic Accounting and Indicators of the Economic Importance of Environmental Protection Activities," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 41(3), pages 265-87, September.
  10. Randy A. Becker & Ronald J. Shadbegian, 2004. "A Change of PACE: Comparing the 1994 and 1999 Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures Surveys," NCEE Working Paper Series 200408, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, revised Jul 2004.
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