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A Unified Approach to Intra-Industry Trade and Direct Foreign Investment

  • James R. Markusen
  • Keith E. Maskus

Economic interactions among the high-income developed countries are characterized by high degrees of both intra-industry trade and intra-industry affiliate production and sales. Similar high-income countries both heavily trade with and invest into each other. The purpose of this paper is to show how the theory of direct investment can now be integrated with the theory of international trade in goods, and to show how the two combine to determine the pattern of trade and foreign affiliate production. Empirical estimation gives good support to the predictions of the theory for intra-industry affiliate sales, with somewhat weaker results for intra-industry trade. Results confirm that the intra-industry affiliate sales index rises relative to the intra-industry trade index as countries become richer and more similar in size and in relative endowments.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8335.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8335.

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Date of creation: Jun 2001
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Publication status: published as Lloyd, Peter, Herbert Grubel, and Hyun-Hoon Lee (eds.) The Frontiers of Intra-Industry Trade. London: Macmillan, 2002.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8335
Note: ITI
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  1. Markusen, James R., 1984. "Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 205-226, May.
  2. Karolina Ekholm,, . "Factor Endowments and the Pattern of Affiliate Production by Multinational Enterprises," Discussion Papers 97/19, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
  3. James R. Markusen & Anthony J. Venables, 1996. "The Theory of Endowment, Intra-Industry, and Multinational Trade," NBER Working Papers 5529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Multinational Firms: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 71-98 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 693-708, June.
  6. Magnus Blomstrom & Linda S. Goldberg, 2001. "Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number blom01-1, June.
  7. James R. Markusen, 1997. "Trade versus Investment Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 6231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Robert E. Lipsey, 1993. "Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: Changes over Three Decades," NBER Chapters, in: Foreign Direct Investment, pages 113-172 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Brainard, S Lael, 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 520-44, September.
  10. James R. Markusen, 1998. "Multinational Firms, Location and Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 733-756, 08.
  11. Ekholm, Karolina, 1998. "Headquarter Services and Revealed Factor Abundance," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(4), pages 545-53, November.
  12. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1998. "Multinational firms and the new trade theory," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-203, December.
  13. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
  14. Ignatius J. Horstmann & James R. Markusen, 1990. "Endogenous Market Structures in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3283, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "An Empirical Assessment of the Factor Proportions Explanation of Multi-National Sales," NBER Working Papers 4583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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