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A Unified Approach to Intra-Industry Trade and Direct Foreign Investment

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  • James R. Markusen
  • Keith E. Maskus

Abstract

Economic interactions among the high-income developed countries are characterized by high degrees of both intra-industry trade and intra-industry affiliate production and sales. Similar high-income countries both heavily trade with and invest into each other. The purpose of this paper is to show how the theory of direct investment can now be integrated with the theory of international trade in goods, and to show how the two combine to determine the pattern of trade and foreign affiliate production. Empirical estimation gives good support to the predictions of the theory for intra-industry affiliate sales, with somewhat weaker results for intra-industry trade. Results confirm that the intra-industry affiliate sales index rises relative to the intra-industry trade index as countries become richer and more similar in size and in relative endowments.

Suggested Citation

  • James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "A Unified Approach to Intra-Industry Trade and Direct Foreign Investment," NBER Working Papers 8335, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8335 Note: ITI
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 209-234, December.
    2. David L. Carr & James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Estimating the Knowledge-Capital Model of the Multinational Enterprise," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 693-708, June.
    3. Markusen, James R., 1984. "Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 205-226, May.
    4. Karolina Ekholm,, "undated". "Factor Endowments and the Pattern of Affiliate Production by Multinational Enterprises," Discussion Papers 97/19, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    5. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1998. "Multinational firms and the new trade theory," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-203, December.
    6. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
    7. Magnus Blomstrom & Linda S. Goldberg, 2001. "Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number blom01-1, January.
    8. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Multinational Firms: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 71-98 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Brainard, S Lael, 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 520-544, September.
    10. James R. Markusen, 1998. "Multinational Firms, Location and Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 733-756, August.
    11. Robert E. Lipsey, 1993. "Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: Changes over Three Decades," NBER Chapters,in: Foreign Direct Investment, pages 113-172 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. James R. Markusen, 1997. "Trade versus Investment Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 6231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "An Empirical Assessment of the Factor Proportions Explanation of Multi-National Sales," NBER Working Papers 4583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Ekholm, Karolina, 1998. "Headquarter Services and Revealed Factor Abundance," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(4), pages 545-553, November.
    15. Ignatius J. Horstmann & James R. Markusen, 1990. "Endogenous Market Structures in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3283, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zhaoyong Zhang & LI Chuan, 2006. "Country-specific factors and the pattern of intra-industry trade in China's manufacturing," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(8), pages 1137-1149.
    2. Filippo Reganati & Rosanna Pittiglio, 2007. "Two-way international trade and production in Italy: a country/industry specific analysis," STUDI ECONOMICI, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2007(91), pages 75-89.
    3. ., 2012. "Is East Asia a “Natural Trade Bloc”? The Trade Complementarity Index, the Intensity Index, and the Bias Index," Chapters,in: Trade and Industrial Development in East Asia, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Muller, A.R. & van Tulder, R.J.M., 2005. "Exploring Patterns of Upstream Internationalization: The Role of Home-region ‘Stickiness’," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2005-084-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    5. Uppal, Yogesh, 2008. "Preferential trading areas: investment and welfare effects when countries differ in their size," MPRA Paper 15193, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Imre Ferto & Károly Attila Soós, 2012. "Controversial issues in factors determining intra-industry trade," International Journal of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 4(1/2), pages 132-148.
    7. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "General-Equilibrium Approaches to the Multinational Firm: A Review of Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 8334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Yushi Yoshida & Nuno Carlos Leitão & Horácio Faustino, 2009. "Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and Foreign Direct Investment between Japan and European Countries," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 37(4), pages 351-365, December.
    9. Mariam Camarero & Cecilio Tamarit, 2003. "Estimating exports and imports demand for Manufactured goods: The role of FDI," European Economy Group Working Papers 22, European Economy Group.
    10. Bishwanath Goldar & Rashmi Banga, 2007. "Impact of Trade Liberalization on Foreign Direct Investment in Indian Industries," Working Papers 3607, Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), an initiative of UNESCAP and IDRC, Canada..
    11. Elvira Sapienza, 2009. "The interaction between Export and FDI: Central-Eastern Europe and EU15," Quaderni DSEMS 13-2009, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Matematiche e Statistiche, Universita' di Foggia.
    12. Monarch, Ryan & Park, Jooyoun & Sivadasan, Jagadeesh, 2017. "Domestic gains from offshoring? Evidence from TAA-linked U.S. microdata," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 150-173.
    13. Gerhard Kling & Joerg Baten & Kirsten Labuske, 2011. "FDI of German Companies During Globalization and Deglobalization," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 247-270, April.
    14. Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller & Pawlik, Konrad, 2005. "The export intensity of foreign affiliates in transition economies - the importance of the organization of production," Working Papers 2005-7, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Management.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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